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Dartmouth College ( DART-məth) is a private
Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, it
is the ninth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of
the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Although founded as a school to educate Native
Americans in Christian theology and the English way of life, Dartmouth primarily trained Congregationalist
ministers throughout its early history. The university gradually secularized, and
by the turn of the 20th century it had risen from relative obscurity into national prominence
as one of the top centers of higher education.Following a liberal arts curriculum, the university
provides undergraduate instruction in 40 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs
including 57 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering,
and enables students to design specialized concentrations or engage in dual degree programs. Dartmouth comprises five constituent schools:
the original undergraduate college, the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering,
the Tuck School of Business, and the Guarini School of Graduate and Advanced Studies. The university also has affiliations with
the Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, the Rockefeller Institute for Public Policy,
and the Hopkins Center for the Arts. With a student enrollment of about 6,400,
Dartmouth is the smallest university in the Ivy League. Undergraduate admissions are highly competitive,
with an acceptance rate of 7.9% for the Class of 2023.Situated on a terrace above the Connecticut
River, Dartmouth’s 269-acre main campus is in the rural Upper Valley region of New England. The university functions on a quarter system,
operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms. Dartmouth is known for its undergraduate focus,
strong Greek culture, and wide array of enduring campus traditions. Its 34 varsity sports teams compete intercollegiately
in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I.
Dartmouth is consistently included among the highest-ranked universities in the United
States by several institutional rankings, and has been cited as a leading university
for undergraduate teaching and research by U.S. News & World Report. In 2018, the Carnegie Classification of Institutions
of Higher Education listed Dartmouth as the only “majority-undergraduate,” “arts-and-sciences
focused,” “doctoral university” in the country that has “some graduate coexistence” and “very
high research activity.” In a New York Times corporate study, Dartmouth
graduates ranked 41st in terms of the most sought-after and valued in the world.The university
has produced many prominent alumni, including 170 members of the U.S. Senate and the U.S.
House of Representatives, 24 U.S. governors, 10 billionaire alumni, 10 U.S. Cabinet secretaries,
3 Nobel Prize laureates, 2 U.S. Supreme Court justices, and a U.S. vice president. Other notable alumni include 79 Rhodes Scholars,
26 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 13 Pulitzer Prize winners, and numerous MacArthur Genius
fellows, Fulbright Scholars, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 corporations, high-ranking
U.S. diplomats, scholars in academia, literary and media figures, professional athletes,
and Olympic medalists.==History==Dartmouth was founded by Eleazar Wheelock,
a Congregational minister from Columbia, Connecticut, who had sought to establish a school to train
Native Americans as Christian missionaries. Wheelock’s ostensible inspiration for such
an establishment resulted from his relationship with Mohegan Indian Samson Occom. Occom became an ordained minister after studying
under Wheelock from 1743 to 1747, and later moved to Long Island to preach to the Montauks.Wheelock
founded Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1755. The Charity School proved somewhat successful,
but additional funding was necessary to continue school’s operations, and Wheelock sought the
help of friends to raise money. The first major donation to the school was
given by Dr. John Phillips in 1762, who would go on to found Phillips Exeter Academy. Occom, accompanied by the Reverend Nathaniel
Whitaker, traveled to England in 1766 to raise money from churches. With these funds, they established a trust
to help Wheelock. The head of the trust was a Methodist named
William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth. Although the fund provided Wheelock ample
financial support for the Charity School, Wheelock initially had trouble recruiting
Indians to the institution, primarily because its location was far from tribal territories. In seeking to expand the school into a college,
Wheelock relocated it to Hanover, in the Province of New Hampshire. The move from Connecticut followed a lengthy
and sometimes frustrating effort to find resources and secure a charter. The Royal Governor of New Hampshire, John
Wentworth, provided the land upon which Dartmouth would be built and on December 13, 1769, issued
a royal charter in the name of King George III establishing the College. That charter created a college “for the education
and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land in reading, writing & all parts
of Learning which shall appear necessary and expedient for civilizing & christianizing
Children of Pagans as well as in all liberal Arts and Sciences and also of English Youth
and any others.” The reference to educating Native American
youth was included to connect Dartmouth to the Charity School and enable use of the Charity
School’s unspent trust funds. Named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth—an
important supporter of Eleazar Wheelock’s earlier efforts but who, in fact, opposed
creation of the College and never donated to it—Dartmouth is the nation’s ninth oldest
college and the last institution of higher learning established under Colonial rule. The College granted its first degrees in 1771.Given
the limited success of the Charity School, however, Wheelock intended his new college
as one primarily for whites. Occom, disappointed with Wheelock’s departure
from the school’s original goal of Indian Christianization, went on to form his own
community of New England Indians called Brothertown Indians in New York. In 1819, Dartmouth College was the subject
of the historic Dartmouth College case, which challenged New Hampshire’s 1816 attempt to
amend the college’ charter to make the school a public university. An institution called Dartmouth University
occupied the college buildings and began operating in Hanover in 1817, though the college continued
teaching classes in rented rooms nearby. Daniel Webster, an alumnus of the class of
1801, presented the College’s case to the Supreme Court, which found the amendment of
Dartmouth’s charter to be an illegal impairment of a contract by the state and reversed New
Hampshire’s takeover of the college. Webster concluded his peroration with the
famous words: “It is, Sir, as I have said, a small college. And yet there are those who love it.”In 1866,
the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts was incorporated in Hanover,
in connection with Dartmouth College. The institution was officially associated
with Dartmouth and was directed by Dartmouth’s president. The new college was moved to Durham, New Hampshire,
in 1891, and later became known as the University of New Hampshire. Dartmouth emerged onto the national academic
stage at the turn of the 20th century. Prior to this period, the college had clung
to traditional methods of instruction and was relatively poorly funded. Under President William Jewett Tucker (1893–1909),
Dartmouth underwent a major revitalization of facilities, faculty, and the student body,
following large endowments such as the $10,000 given by Dartmouth alumnus and law professor
John Ordronaux. 20 new structures replaced antiquated buildings,
while the student body and faculty both expanded threefold. Tucker is often credited for having “refounded
Dartmouth” and bringing it into national prestige. Presidents Ernest Fox Nichols (1909–16)
and Ernest Martin Hopkins (1916–45) continued Tucker’s trend of modernization, further improving
campus facilities and introducing selective admissions in the 1920s. In 1945, Hopkins was subject to no small amount
of controversy, as he openly admitted to Dartmouth’s practice of using racial quotas to deny Jews
entry into the university. John Sloan Dickey, serving as president from
1945 until 1970, strongly emphasized the liberal arts, particularly public policy and international
relations. During World War II, Dartmouth was one of
131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training
Program which offered students a path to a navy commission.In 1970, longtime professor
of mathematics and computer science John George Kemeny became president of Dartmouth. Kemeny oversaw several major changes at the
college. Dartmouth, which had been a men’s institution,
began admitting women as full-time students and undergraduate degree candidates in 1972
amid much controversy. At about the same time, the college adopted
its “Dartmouth Plan” of academic scheduling, permitting the student body to increase in
size within the existing facilities. In 1988, Dartmouth’s alma mater song’s lyrics
changed from “Men of Dartmouth” to “Dear old Dartmouth”.During the 1990s, the college saw
a major academic overhaul under President James O. Freedman and a controversial (and
ultimately unsuccessful) 1999 initiative to encourage the school’s single-sex Greek houses
to go coed. The first decade of the 21st century saw the
commencement of the $1.3 billion Campaign for the Dartmouth Experience, the largest
capital fundraising campaign in the college’s history, which surpassed $1 billion in 2008. The mid- and late first decade of the 21st
century have also seen extensive campus construction, with the erection of two new housing complexes,
full renovation of two dormitories, and a forthcoming dining hall, life sciences center,
and visual arts center. In 2004, Booz Allen Hamilton selected Dartmouth
College as a model of institutional endurance “whose record of endurance has had implications
and benefits for all American organizations, both academic and commercial,” citing Trustees
of Dartmouth College v. Woodward and Dartmouth’s successful self-reinvention in the late 19th
century. Since the election of a number of petition-nominated
trustees to the Board of Trustees starting in 2004, the role of alumni in Dartmouth governance
has been the subject of ongoing conflict. President James Wright announced his retirement
in February 2008 and was replaced by Harvard University professor and physician Jim Yong
Kim on July 1, 2009.In May 2010 Dartmouth joined the Matariki Network of Universities
(MNU) together with Durham University (UK), Queen’s University (Canada), University of
Otago (New Zealand), University of Tübingen (Germany), University of Western Australia
(Australia) and Uppsala University (Sweden).Dartmouth’s close association and involvement in the development
of the downhill skiing industry is featured in the 2010 book Passion for Skiing as well
as the 2013 documentary based on the book Passion for Snow.==Academics==Dartmouth, a liberal arts institution, offers
a four-year Bachelor of Arts and ABET-accredited Bachelor of Engineering degree to undergraduate
students. The college has 39 academic departments offering
56 major programs, while students are free to design special majors or engage in dual
majors. For the graduating class of 2017, the most
popular majors were economics, government, computer science, engineering sciences, and
history. The Government Department, whose prominent
professors include Stephen Brooks, Richard Ned Lebow, and William Wohlforth, was ranked
the top solely undergraduate political science program in the world by researchers at the
London School of Economics in 2003. The Economics Department, whose prominent
professors include David Blanchflower and Andrew Samwick, also holds the distinction
as the top-ranked bachelor’s-only economics program in the world. In order to graduate, a student must complete
35 total courses, eight to ten of which are typically part of a chosen major program. Other requirements for graduation include
the completion of ten “distributive requirements” in a variety of academic fields, proficiency
in a foreign language, and completion of a writing class and first-year seminar in writing. Many departments offer honors programs requiring
students seeking that distinction to engage in “independent, sustained work,” culminating
in the production of a thesis. In addition to the courses offered in Hanover,
Dartmouth offers 57 different off-campus programs, including Foreign Study Programs, Language
Study Abroad programs, and Exchange Programs. Through the Graduate Studies program, Dartmouth
grants doctorate and master’s degrees in 19 Arts & Sciences graduate programs. Although the first graduate degree, a PhD
in classics, was awarded in 1885, many of the current PhD programs have only existed
since the 1960s. Furthermore, Dartmouth is home to three professional
schools: the Geisel School of Medicine (established 1797), Thayer School of Engineering (1867)—which
also serves as the undergraduate department of engineering sciences—and Tuck School
of Business (1900). With these professional schools and graduate
programs, conventional American usage would accord Dartmouth the label of “Dartmouth University”;
however, because of historical and nostalgic reasons (such as Dartmouth College v. Woodward),
the school uses the name “Dartmouth College” to refer to the entire institution.Dartmouth
employs a total of 607 tenured or tenure-track faculty members, including the highest proportion
of female tenured professors among the Ivy League universities. Faculty members have been at the forefront
of such major academic developments as the Dartmouth Workshop, the Dartmouth Time Sharing
System, Dartmouth BASIC, and Dartmouth ALGOL 30. In 2005, sponsored project awards to Dartmouth
faculty research amounted to $169 million.Dartmouth serves as the host institution of the University
Press of New England, a university press founded in 1970 that is supported by a consortium
of schools that also includes Brandeis University, the University of New Hampshire, Northeastern
University, Tufts University and the University of Vermont.===Rankings===
Dartmouth was ranked 11th among undergraduate programs at national universities by U.S.
News & World Report in its 2018 rankings. Dartmouth’s strength in undergraduate education
is highlighted by U.S. News when in 2009 through 2013 it ranked Dartmouth first in undergraduate
teaching at national universities. It was ranked 2nd in this area in the 2018
rankings. The institution also ranked 5th in High School
Counselor Rankings in 2018. The college ranks 7th in The Wall Street Journal’s
ranking of top feeder schools.The 2017 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Dartmouth
among the 71-99th best universities in the nation, alongside institution such as Georgetown
University and University of Notre Dame. AWRU ranks Dartmouth among the 76–100 best
schools in the world for Business Administration and 101–150 for Management and Psychology. In Forbes’ 2019 rankings of colleges, Dartmouth
ranked 9th overall in the combined liberal arts college and national universities ranking. In the Forbes 2018 “grateful graduate” rankings,
Dartmouth came 1st.The 2006 Carnegie Foundation classification listed Dartmouth as the only
“majority-undergraduate”, “arts-and-sciences focus[ed]”, “research university” in the country
that also had “some graduate coexistence” and “very high research activity.”For its
graduate programs, U.S. News ranks Dartmouth’s MBA program 9th overall and 6th for management. Among its other highly ranked graduate offerings,
the school is ranked 40th in computer science, 29th in medicine for primary care, and 37th
in medicine for research. Its global ranking places is at 242nd.===Admissions===
Undergraduate admission to Dartmouth College is characterized by the Carnegie Foundation
and U.S. News & World Report as “most selective.” The Princeton Review, in its 2018 edition,
gave the university an admissions selectivity rating of 98 out of 99. For the freshman class entering Fall 2018,
Dartmouth received 22,033 applications of which 1,925 were accepted for an 8.7% admissions
rate. Of those admitted students who reported class
rank, a record 46.3% were valedictorian or salutatorian, with 97% ranking in the top
decile of their class. The admitted students’ academic profile showed
an all-time high SAT average score of 1497, while the average composite ACT score remained
at 33. More than 51% identified as being students
of color, 15% are among the first generation in their families to matriculate to college,
11% are international students, and 9% are legacies.Additionally, for the 2016–2017
academic year, Dartmouth received 685 transfer applications of which 5.1% were accepted,
with an average SAT composite score of 1490, average composite ACT score of 34, and average
college GPA of about 3.85. Dartmouth meets 100% of students’ demonstrated
financial need in order to attend the College, and currently admits all students, with the
exception of internationals, on a need-blind basis.===Financial aid===
Dartmouth guarantees to meet 100% of the demonstrated need of every admitted student who applies
for financial aid at the time of admission. Dartmouth practices need-blind admissions
for all applicants who are U.S. citizens, permanent residents, and undocumented students
in the U.S. These applicants are admitted to the college
without regard to their financial circumstances. For international students, financial need
is taken into consideration as one of many factors at the time of admission. At Dartmouth, free tuition is provided for
students from families with total incomes of $100,000 or less and possessing typical
assets. In 2015, $88.8 million in need-based scholarships
were awarded to Dartmouth students.===The Dartmouth Plan===Dartmouth functions on a quarter system, operating
year-round on four ten-week academic terms. The Dartmouth Plan (or simply “D-Plan”) is
an academic scheduling system that permits the customization of each student’s academic
year. All undergraduates are required to be in residence
for the fall, winter, and spring terms of their freshman and senior years, as well as
the summer term of their sophomore year. However, students may petition to alter this
plan so that they may be off during their freshman, senior, or sophomore summer terms. During all terms, students are permitted to
choose between studying on-campus, studying at an off-campus program, or taking a term
off for vacation, outside internships, or research projects. The typical course load is three classes per
term, and students will generally enroll in classes for 12 total terms over the course
of their academic career.The D-Plan was instituted in the early 1970s at the same time that Dartmouth
began accepting female undergraduates. It was initially devised as a plan to increase
the enrollment without enlarging campus accommodations, and has been described as “a way to put 4,000
students into 3,000 beds.” Although new dormitories have been built since,
the number of students has also increased and the D-Plan remains in effect. It was modified in the 1980s in an attempt
to reduce the problems of lack of social and academic continuity.===Board of Trustees===Dartmouth is governed by a Board of Trustees
comprising the college president (ex officio), the state governor (ex officio), 13 trustees
nominated and elected by the board (called “charter trustees”), and eight trustees nominated
by alumni and elected by the board (“alumni trustees”). The nominees for alumni trustee are determined
by a poll of the members of the Association of Alumni of Dartmouth College, selecting
from among names put forward by the Alumni Council or by alumni petition. Although the board elected its members from
the two sources of nominees in equal proportions between 1891 and 2007, the board decided in
2007 to add several new members, all charter trustees. In the controversy that followed the decision,
the Association of Alumni filed a lawsuit, although it later withdrew the action. In 2008, the Board added five new charter
trustees.==Campus==Dartmouth College is situated in the rural
town of Hanover, New Hampshire, located in the Upper Valley along the Connecticut River
in New England. Its 269-acre (1.09 km2) campus is centered
on a 5-acre (2 ha) “Green”, a former field of pine trees cleared in 1771. Dartmouth is the largest private landowner
of the town of Hanover, and its total landholdings and facilities are worth an estimated $434
million. In addition to its campus in Hanover, Dartmouth
owns 4,500 acres (18 km2) of Mount Moosilauke in the White Mountains and a 27,000-acre (110
km2) tract of land in northern New Hampshire known as the Second College Grant. Dartmouth’s campus buildings vary in age from
Wentworth and Thornton Halls of the 1820s (the oldest surviving buildings constructed
by the college) to new dormitories and mathematics facilities completed in 2006. Most of Dartmouth’s buildings are designed
in the Georgian colonial architecture style, a theme which has been preserved in recent
architectural additions. The College has actively sought to reduce
carbon emissions and energy usage on campus, earning it the grade of A- from the Sustainable
Endowments Institute on its College Sustainability Report Card 2008.A notable feature of the
Dartmouth campus is its many trees which (despite Dutch elm disease) include some 200 American
elms.===Academic facilities===The college’s creative and performing arts
facility is the Hopkins Center for the Arts (“the Hop”). Opened in 1962, the Hop houses the College’s
drama, music, film, and studio arts departments, as well as a woodshop, pottery studio, and
jewelry studio which are open for use by students and faculty. The building was designed by the famed architect
Wallace Harrison, who would later design the similar-looking façade of Manhattan’s Metropolitan
Opera House at Lincoln Center. Its facilities include two theaters and one
900-seat auditorium. The Hop is also the location of all student
mailboxes (“Hinman boxes”) and the Courtyard Café dining facility. The Hop is connected to the Hood Museum of
Art, arguably North America’s oldest museum in continuous operation, and the Loew Auditorium,
where films are screened. In addition to its 19 graduate programs in
the arts and sciences, Dartmouth is home to three separate graduate schools. The Geisel School of Medicine is located in
a complex on the north side of campus and includes laboratories, classrooms, offices,
and a biomedical library. The Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center,
located several miles to the south in Lebanon, New Hampshire, contains a 396-bed teaching
hospital for the Medical School. The Thayer School of Engineering and the Tuck
School of Business are both located at the end of Tuck Mall, west of the center of campus
and near the Connecticut River. The Thayer School comprises two buildings;
Tuck has seven academic and administrative buildings, as well as several common areas. The two graduate schools share a library,
the Feldberg Business & Engineering Library.Dartmouth’s nine libraries are all part of the collective
Dartmouth College Library, which comprises 2.48 million volumes and 6 million total resources,
including videos, maps, sound recordings, and photographs. Its specialized libraries include the Biomedical
Libraries, Evans Map Room, Feldberg Business & Engineering Library, Jones Media Center,
Kresge Physical Sciences Library, Paddock Music Library, Rauner Special Collections
Library, and Sherman Art Library. Baker-Berry Library is the main library at
Dartmouth, consisting of a merger of the Baker Memorial Library (opened 1928) and the Berry
Library (completed 2002). Located on the northern side of the Green,
Baker’s 200-foot (61 m) tower is an iconic symbol of the College.===Athletic facilities===Dartmouth’s original sports field was the
Green, where students played cricket and old division football during the 19th century. Today, two of Dartmouth’s athletic facilities
are located in the southeast corner of campus. The center of athletic life is the Alumni
Gymnasium, which includes the Karl Michael Competition Pool and the Spaulding Pool, a
state of the art fitness center, a weight room, and a 1/13th-mile (123 m) indoor track. Attached to Alumni Gymnasium is the Berry
Sports Center, which contains basketball and volleyball courts (Leede Arena), as well as
the Kresge Fitness Center. Behind the Alumni Gymnasium is Memorial Field,
a 15,600-seat stadium overlooking Dartmouth’s football field and track. The nearby Thompson Arena, designed by Italian
engineer Pier Luigi Nervi and constructed in 1975, houses Dartmouth’s ice rink. Also visible from Memorial Field is the 91,800-square-foot
(8,530 m2) Nathaniel Leverone Fieldhouse, home to the indoor track. The new softball field, Dartmouth Softball
Park, was constructed in 2012, sharing parking facilities with Thompson arena and replacing
Sachem Field, located over a mile from campus, as the primary softball facility. Dartmouth’s other athletic facilities in Hanover
include the Friends of Dartmouth Rowing Boathouse and the old rowing house storage facility
(both located along the Connecticut River), the Hanover Country Club, Dartmouth’s oldest
remaining athletic facility (established in 1899), and the Corey Ford Rugby Clubhouse. The college also maintains the Dartmouth Skiway,
a 100-acre (0.40 km2) skiing facility located over two mountains near the Hanover campus
in Lyme Center, New Hampshire, that serves as the winter practice grounds for the Dartmouth
ski team, which is a perennial contender for the NCAA Division I championship.===Residential housing and student life facilities
===Beginning in the fall term of 2016, Dartmouth
placed all undergraduate students in one of six House communities, similar to residential
colleges, including Allen House, East Wheelock House, North Park House, School House, South
House, and West House, alongside independent Living Learning Communities. Dartmouth used to have nine residential communities
located throughout campus, instead of ungrouped dormitories or residential colleges. The dormitories varied in design from modern
to traditional Georgian styles, and room arrangements range from singles to quads and apartment
suites. Since 2006, the college has guaranteed housing
for students during their freshman and sophomore years. More than 3,000 students elect to live in
housing provided by college.Campus meals are served by Dartmouth Dining Services, which
operates 11 dining establishments around campus. Four of them are located at the center of
campus in the Class of 1953 Commons, formerly Thayer Dining Hall.The Collis Center is the
center of student life and programming, serving as what would be generically termed the “student
union” or “campus center.” It contains a café, study space, common areas,
and a number of administrative departments, including the Academic Skills Centre. Robinson Hall, next door to both Collis and
Thayer, contains the offices of a number of student organizations including the Dartmouth
Outing Club and The Dartmouth daily newspaper.==Student life==
In 2006, The Princeton Review ranked Dartmouth third in its “Quality of Life” category, and
sixth for having the “Happiest Students.” Athletics and participation in the Greek system
are the most popular campus activities. In all, Dartmouth offers more than 350 organizations,
teams, and sports. The school is also home to a variety of longstanding
traditions and celebrations and has a loyal alumni network; Dartmouth ranked #2 in “The
Princeton Review” in 2006 for Best Alumni Network.===Student safety===
In 2014, Dartmouth College was the third highest in the nation in “total of reports of rape”
on their main campus, with 42 reports of rape. The Washington Post attributed the high number
of rape reports to the fact that a growing number of sexual assault victims feel comfortable
enough to report sexual assaults that would have gone unreported in previous years. In 2015, the Huffington Post reported that
Dartmouth College had the highest rate of bystander intervention of any college surveyed,
with 57.7% of Dartmouth students reporting that they would take some sort of action if
they saw someone acting in a “sexually violent or harassing manner,” compared to 45.5% of
students nationally. Dartmouth fraternities have an extensive history
of hazing and alcohol abuse, leading to police raids and accusations of sexual harassment.===Student groups===Dartmouth’s more than 200 student organizations
and clubs cover a wide range of interests. In 2007, the college hosted eight academic
groups, 17 cultural groups, two honor societies, 30 “issue-oriented” groups, 25 performing
groups, 12 pre-professional groups, 20 publications, and 11 recreational groups. Notable student groups include the nation’s
largest and oldest collegiate outdoors club, the Dartmouth Outing Club, which includes
the nationally recognized Big Green Bus; the campus’s oldest a cappella group, The Dartmouth
Aires; the controversial conservative newspaper The Dartmouth Review; and The Dartmouth, arguably
the nation’s oldest university newspaper. The Dartmouth describes itself as “America’s
Oldest College Newspaper, Founded 1799.”Partially because of Dartmouth’s rural, isolated location,
the Greek system dating from the 1840s is one of the most popular social outlets for
students. Dartmouth is home to 32 recognized Greek houses:
17 fraternities, 12 sororities, and three coeducational organizations. In 2007, roughly 70% of eligible students
belonged to a Greek organization; since 1987, students have not been permitted to join Greek
organizations until their sophomore year. Dartmouth College was among the first institutions
of higher education to desegregate fraternity houses in the 1950s, and was involved in the
movement to create coeducational Greek houses in the 1970s. In the early first decade of the 21st century,
campus-wide debate focused on a Board of Trustees recommendation that Greek organizations become
“substantially coeducational”; this attempt to change the Greek system eventually failed. The fraternities have an extensive history
of hazing and alcohol abuse, leading to police raids and accusations of sexual harassment.Dartmouth
also has a number of secret societies, which are student- and alumni-led organizations
often focused on preserving the history of the college and initiating service projects. Most prominent among them is the Sphinx society,
housed in a prominent Egyptian tomb-like building near the center of campus. The Sphinx has been the subject of numerous
rumors as to its facilities, practices, and membership.The college has an additional classification
of social/residential organizations known as undergraduate societies.===Athletics===Approximately 20% of students participate
in a varsity sport, and nearly 80% participate in some form of club, varsity, intramural,
or other athletics. In 2007, Dartmouth College fielded 34 intercollegiate
varsity teams: 16 for men, 16 for women, and coeducational sailing and equestrian programs. Dartmouth’s athletic teams compete in the
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I eight-member Ivy League conference;
some teams also participate in the Eastern College Athletic Conference (ECAC). As is mandatory for the members of the Ivy
League, Dartmouth College does not offer athletic scholarships. In addition to the traditional American team
sports (football, basketball, baseball, and ice hockey), Dartmouth competes at the varsity
level in many other sports including track and field, softball, squash, sailing, tennis,
rowing, soccer, skiing, and lacrosse. The college also offers 26 club and intramural
sports such as fencing, rugby, water polo, figure skating, boxing, volleyball, ultimate
frisbee, and cricket, leading to a 75% participation rate in athletics among the undergraduate
student body. The Dartmouth Fencing Team, despite being
entirely self-coached, won the USACFC club national championship in 2014. The Dartmouth Men’s Rugby Team, founded in
1951, has been ranked among the best collegiate teams in that sport, winning for example the
Ivy Rugby Conference every year between 2008 and 2015. The figure skating team won the national championship
five straight times from 2004 through 2008. In addition to the academic requirements for
graduation, Dartmouth requires every undergraduate to complete a 50-yard (46 m) swim and three
terms of physical education.===Native Americans at Dartmouth===It is often pointed out that the charter of
Dartmouth College, granted to Eleazar Wheelock in 1769, proclaims that the institution was
created “for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land
in reading, writing and all parts of Learning … as well as in all liberal Arts and Sciences;
and also of English Youth and any others.” However, Wheelock primarily intended the college
to educate White youth, and the few Native students that attended Dartmouth experienced
much difficulty in an institution ostensibly dedicated to their education. The funds for the Charity School for Native
Americans that preceded Dartmouth College were raised primarily by the efforts of a
Native American named Samson Occom, and at least some of those funds were used to help
found the college.The college graduated only 19 Native Americans during its first two hundred
years. In 1970, the college established Native American
academic and social programs as part of a “new dedication to increasing Native American
enrollment.” Since then, Dartmouth has graduated over 700
Native American students from over 200 different tribes, more than the other seven Ivy League
universities combined.===Traditions===Dartmouth is well known for its fierce school
spirit and many traditions. The college functions on a quarter system,
and one weekend each term is set aside as a traditional celebratory event, known on
campus as “big weekends” or “party weekends”. In the fall term, Homecoming (officially called
Dartmouth Night) is marked by a bonfire on the Green constructed by the freshman class. Winter term is celebrated by Winter Carnival,
a tradition started in 1911 by the Dartmouth Outing Club to promote winter sports. This tradition is the oldest in the United
States, and subsequently went on to catch on at other New England colleges. In the spring, Green Key is a weekend mostly
devoted to campus parties and celebration.The summer term was formerly marked by Tubestock,
an unofficial tradition in which the students used wooden rafts and inner tubes to float
on the Connecticut River. Begun in 1986, Tubestock was ended in 2006
by town ordinance. The Class of 2008, during their summer term
on campus in 2006, replaced the defunct Tubestock with Fieldstock. This new celebration includes a barbecue,
live music, and the revival of the 1970s and 1980s tradition of racing homemade chariots
around the Green. Unlike Tubestock, Fieldstock is funded and
supported by the College.Another longstanding tradition is four-day, student-run Dartmouth
Outing Club trips for incoming freshmen, begun in 1935. Each trip concludes at the Moosilauke Ravine
Lodge. In 2011, over 96% of freshmen elected to participate.==Insignia and other representations=====
Motto and song===Dartmouth’s motto, chosen by Eleazar Wheelock,
is Vox clamantis in deserto. The Latin motto is literally translated as
“A calling voice in the wilderness”, but is more often rendered as “A voice crying out
in the wilderness”. The phrase appears five times in the Bible
and is a reference to the college’s location on what was once the frontier of European
settlement. Richard Hovey’s “Men of Dartmouth” was elected
as the best of Dartmouth’s songs in 1896, and became the school’s official song in 1926. The song was retitled to “Alma Mater” in the
1980s when its lyrics were changed to refer to women as well as men.===Seal===Dartmouth’s 1769 royal charter required the
creation of a seal for use on official documents and diplomas. The college’s founder Eleazar Wheelock designed
a seal for his college bearing a striking resemblance to the seal of the Society for
the Propagation of the Gospel, a missionary society founded in London in 1701, in order
to maintain the illusion that his college was more for mission work than for higher
education. Engraved by a Boston silversmith, the seal
was ready by commencement of 1773. The trustees officially accepted the seal
on August 25, 1773, describing it as: An Oval, circumscribed by a Line containing
SIGILL: COL: DARTMUTH: NOV: HANT: IN AMERICA 1770. within projecting a Pine Grove on the
Right, whence proceed Natives towards an Edifice two Storey on the left; which bears in a Label
over the Grove these Words “vox clamantis in deserto” the whole supported by Religion
on the Right and Justice on the Left, and bearing in a Triangle irradiate, with the
Hebrew Words [El Shaddai], agreeable to the above Impression, be the common Seal under
which to pass all Diplomas or Certificates of Degrees, and all other Affairs of Business
of and concerning Dartmouth College. On October 28, 1926, the trustees affirmed
the charter’s reservation of the seal for official corporate documents alone. The College Publications Committee commissioned
noted typographer William Addison Dwiggins to create a line drawing version of the seal
in 1940 that saw widespread use. Dwiggins’ design was modified during 1957
to change the date from “1770” to “1769”, to accord with the date of the college charter. The trustees commissioned a new set of dies
with a date of “1769” to replace the old dies, now badly worn after almost two hundred years
of use. The 1957 design continues to be used under
trademark number 2305032.===Shield===
On October 28, 1926, the trustees approved a “Dartmouth College Shield” for general use. Artist and engraver W. Parke Johnson designed
this emblem on the basis of the shield that is depicted at the center of the original
seal. This design does not survive. On June 9, 1944, the trustees approved another
coat of arms based on the shield part of the seal, this one by Canadian artist and designer
Thoreau MacDonald. That design was used widely and, like Dwiggins’
seal, had its date changed from “1770” to “1769” around 1958. That version continues to be used under trademark
registration number 3112676 and others.College designer John Scotford made a stylized version
of the shield during the 1960s, but it did not see the success of MacDonald’s design. The shield appears to have been used as the
basis of the shield of Dartmouth Medical School, and it has been reproduced in sizes as small
as 20 micrometers across. The design has appeared on Rudolph Ruzicka’s
Bicentennial Medal (Philadelphia Mint, 1969) and elsewhere.===Nickname, symbol, and mascot===
Dartmouth has never had an official mascot. The nickname “The Big Green,” originating
in the 1860s, is based on students’ adoption of a shade of forest green (“Dartmouth Green”)
as the school’s official color in 1866. Beginning in the 1920s, the Dartmouth College
athletic teams were known by their unofficial nickname “the Indians”, a moniker that probably
originated among sports journalists. This unofficial mascot and team name was used
until the early 1970s, when its use came under criticism. In 1974, the Trustees declared the “use of
the [Indian] symbol in any form to be inconsistent with present institutional and academic objectives
of the College in advancing Native American education.” Some alumni and students, as well as the conservative
student newspaper, The Dartmouth Review, have sought to return the Indian symbol to prominence,
but never succeeded in doing so.Various student initiatives have been undertaken to adopt
a mascot, but none has become “official.” One proposal devised by the college humor
magazine the Dartmouth Jack-O-Lantern was Keggy the Keg, an anthropomorphic beer keg
who makes occasional appearances at college sporting events. Despite student enthusiasm for Keggy, the
mascot has received approval from only the student government. In November 2006, student government attempted
to revive the “Dartmoose” as a potential replacement amid renewed controversy surrounding the former
unofficial Indian mascot.==Alumni==Dartmouth’s alumni are known for their devotion
to the college. Most start by giving to the Senior Class Gift. According to a 2008 article in The Wall Street
Journal based on data from payscale.com, Dartmouth graduates also earn higher median salaries
at least 10 years after graduation than alumni of any other American university surveyed.By
2008, Dartmouth had graduated 238 classes of students, and had over 60,000 living alumni
in a variety of fields.Nelson A. Rockefeller, 41st Vice President of the United States and
49th Governor of New York, graduated cum laude from Dartmouth with a degree in economics
in 1930. Over 164 Dartmouth graduates have served in
the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives, such as Massachusetts
statesman Daniel Webster. Cabinet members of American presidents include
Attorney General Amos T. Akerman, Secretary of Defense James V. Forrestal, Secretary of
Labor Robert Reich, Secretary of the Treasury Henry Paulson, and Secretary of the Treasury
Timothy Geithner. C. Everett Koop was the Surgeon General of
the United States under President Ronald Reagan. Two Dartmouth alumni have served as justices
on the Supreme Court of the United States: Salmon P. Chase and Levi Woodbury. Eugene Norman Veasey (class of 1954) served
as the Chief Justice of Delaware. The 46th Governor of Pennsylvania Tom Wolf,
the 42nd Governor of Illinois, businessman Bruce Rauner, and the 31st governor and current
senator from North Dakota, John Hoeven (R), are also Dartmouth alumni. In literature and journalism, Dartmouth has
produced 13 Pulitzer Prize winners: Thomas M. Burton, Richard Eberhart, Dan Fagin, Paul
Gigot, Frank Gilroy, Jake Hooker, Nigel Jaquiss, Joseph Rago, Martin J. Sherwin, David K. Shipler,
David Shribman, Justin Harvey Smith and Robert Frost. Frost, who received four Pulitzer Prizes for
Poetry in his lifetime, attended but did not graduate from Dartmouth; he is, however, the
only person to have received two honorary degrees from Dartmouth.Other authors and media
personalities include ABC Senior White House correspondent Jake Tapper, novelist and founding
editor of The Believer Heidi Julavits, “Dean of rock critics” Robert Christgau, National
Book Award winners Louise Erdrich and Phil Klay, novelist/screenwriter Budd Schulberg,
political analyst Dinesh D’Souza, radio talk show host Laura Ingraham, commentator Mort
Kondracke, and journalist James Panero. Norman Maclean, professor at the University
of Chicago and author of A River Runs Through It and Other Stories, graduated from Dartmouth
in 1924. Theodor Geisel, better known as children’s
author Dr. Seuss, was a member of the class of 1925.In the area of religion and theology,
Dartmouth alumni include priests and ministers Ebenezer Porter, Jonathan Clarkson Gibbs,
Caleb Sprague Henry, Arthur Whipple Jenks, Solomon Spalding, and Joseph Tracy; and rabbis
Marshall Meyer, Arnold Resnicoff, and David E. Stern. Hyrum Smith, brother of Mormon Prophet Joseph
Smith, attended the college in his teens. He was Patriarch of the LDS Church. Dartmouth alumni in academia include Stuart
Kauffman and Jeffrey Weeks, both recipients of MacArthur Fellowships (commonly called
“genius grants”). Dartmouth has also graduated three Nobel Prize
winners: Owen Chamberlain (Physics, 1959), K. Barry Sharpless (Chemistry, 2001), and
George Davis Snell (Physiology or Medicine, 1980). Educators include founder and first president
of Bates College, Oren Burbank Cheney (1839), the current chancellor of the University of
California, San Diego, Marye Anne Fox (PhD. in Chemistry, 1974), founding president of
Vassar College Milo Parker Jewett, founder and first president of Kenyon College Philander
Chase, first professor of Wabash College Caleb Mills, and president of Union College Charles
Augustus Aiken. Nine of Dartmouth’s 17 presidents were alumni
of the College.Dartmouth alumni serving as CEOs or company presidents and executives
include Charles Alfred Pillsbury, founder of the Pillsbury Company and patriarch of
the Pillsbury family, Sandy Alderson (San Diego Padres), John Donahoe (eBay), Louis
V. Gerstner, Jr. (IBM), Charles E. Haldeman (Putnam Investments), Donald J. Hall, Sr.
(Hallmark Cards), Douglas Hodge (CEO of PIMCO accused of fraud), Jeffrey R. Immelt (General
Electric), Gail Koziara Boudreaux (United Health Care), Grant Tinker (NBC), and Brian
Goldner (Hasbro).In film, entertainment, and television, Dartmouth is represented by Budd
Schulberg, Academy Award-winning screenwriter of On the Waterfront, Michael Phillips, who
won the Academy Award for best picture as co-producer of The Sting, Rachel Dratch, a
cast member of Saturday Night Live, Shonda Rhimes creator of Grey’s Anatomy, Private
Practice and Scandal, Chris Meledandri Executive Producer of Ice Age, Horton Hears a Who!,
and Despicable Me, and the title character of Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood, Fred Rogers. Other notable film and television figures
include Sarah Wayne Callies (Prison Break), Emmy Award winner Michael Moriarty, Andrew
Shue of Melrose Place, Aisha Tyler of Friends and 24, Connie Britton of Spin City, The West
Wing and Friday Night Lights, Mindy Kaling of The Office and The Mindy Project, and David
Harbour of Stranger Things. A number of Dartmouth alumni have found success
in professional sports. In baseball, Dartmouth alumni include All-Star
and three-time Gold Glove winner and manager Brad Ausmus, All-Star reliever Mike Remlinger,
and pitcher Kyle Hendricks. Professional football players include Miami
Dolphins quarterback Jay Fiedler, linebacker Reggie Williams, three-time Pro Bowler Nick
Lowery, quarterback Jeff Kemp, and Tennessee Titans tight end Casey Cramer, plus Miami
Dolphins defensive coordinator Matt Burke. Dartmouth has also produced a number of Olympic
competitors. Adam Nelson won the silver medal in the shot
put in the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the gold medal at the 2004 Athens Olympics to go along
with his gold medal in the 2005 World Championships in Athletics in Helsinki. Kristin King and Sarah Parsons were members
of the United States’ 2006 bronze medal-winning ice hockey team. Cherie Piper, Gillian Apps, and Katie Weatherston
were among Canada’s ice hockey gold medalists in 2006.Dick Durrance and Tim Caldwell competed
for the United States in skiing in the 1936 and 1976 Winter Olympics, respectively. Arthur Shaw, Earl Thomson, Edwin Myers, Marc
Wright, Adam Nelson, Gerry Ashworth, and Vilhjálmur Einarsson have all won medals in track and
field events. Former heavyweight rower Dominic Seiterle
is a member of the Canadian national rowing team and won a gold medal at the 2008 Summer
Olympics in the men’s 8+ event. Notable Dartmouth alumni include:==In popular culture==
Dartmouth College has appeared in or been referenced by a number of popular media. Most notably, the 1978 comedy film National
Lampoon’s Animal House was co-written by Chris Miller ’63, and is based loosely on a series
of stories he wrote about his fraternity days at Dartmouth. In a CNN interview, John Landis said the movie
was “based on Chris Miller’s real fraternity at Dartmouth”, Alpha Delta Phi. Dartmouth’s Winter Carnival tradition was
the subject of the 1939 film Winter Carnival starring Ann Sheridan and written by Budd
Schulberg ’36 and F. Scott Fitzgerald

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