How we can make crops survive without water | Jill Farrant


I believe that the secret to producing
extremely drought-tolerant crops, which should go some way
to providing food security in the world, lies in resurrection plants, pictured here, in an extremely
droughted state. You might think
that these plants look dead, but they’re not. Give them water, and they will resurrect, green up,
start growing, in 12 to 48 hours. Now, why would I suggest that producing drought-tolerant crops
will go towards providing food security? Well, the current world population
is around 7 billion. And it’s estimated that by 2050, we’ll be between 9 and 10 billion people, with the bulk of this growth
happening in Africa. The food and agricultural
organizations of the world have suggested that we need
a 70 percent increase in current agricultural practice to meet that demand. Given that plants
are at the base of the food chain, most of that’s going
to have to come from plants. That percentage of 70 percent does not take into consideration
the potential effects of climate change. This is taken from a study by Dai
published in 2011, where he took into consideration all the potential effects
of climate change and expressed them —
amongst other things — increased aridity due to lack of rain
or infrequent rain. The areas in red shown here, are areas that until recently have been very successfully
used for agriculture, but cannot anymore
because of lack of rainfall. This is the situation
that’s predicted to happen in 2050. Much of Africa,
in fact, much of the world, is going to be in trouble. We’re going to have to think of some
very smart ways of producing food. And preferably among them,
some drought-tolerant crops. The other thing
to remember about Africa is that most of their agriculture is rainfed. Now, making drought-tolerant crops
is not the easiest thing in the world. And the reason for this is water. Water is essential to life on this planet. All living, actively
metabolizing organisms, from microbes to you and I, are comprised predominately of water. All life reactions happen in water. And loss of a small amount
of water results in death. You and I are 65 percent water — we lose one percent of that, we die. But we can make behavioral
changes to avoid that. Plants can’t. They’re stuck in the ground. And so in the first instance they have
a little bit more water than us, about 95 percent water, and they can lose
a little bit more than us, like 10 to about 70 percent,
depending on the species, but for short periods only. Most of them will either try
to resist or avoid water loss. So extreme examples of resistors
can be found in succulents. They tend to be small, very attractive, but they hold onto their water
at such great cost that they grow extremely slowly. Examples of avoidance of water loss
are found in trees and shrubs. They send down very deep roots, mine subterranean water supplies and just keep flushing
it through them at all times, keeping themselves hydrated. The one on the right is called a baobab. It’s also called the upside-down tree, simply because the proportion
of roots to shoots is so great that it looks like the tree
has been planted upside down. And of course the roots are required
for hydration of that plant. And probably the most common strategy
of avoidance is found in annuals. Annuals make up the bulk
of our plant food supplies. Up the west coast of my country, for much of the year
you don’t see much vegetation growth. But come the spring rains, you get this: flowering of the desert. The strategy in annuals, is to grow only in the rainy season. At the end of that season
they produce a seed, which is dry, eight to 10 percent water, but very much alive. And anything that is
that dry and still alive, we call desiccation-tolerant. In the desiccated state, what seeds can do
is lie in extremes of environment for prolonged periods of time. The next time the rainy season comes, they germinate and grow, and the whole cycle just starts again. It’s widely believed that the evolution
of desiccation-tolerant seeds allowed the colonization and the radiation of flowering plants,
or angiosperms, onto land. But back to annuals
as our major form of food supplies. Wheat, rice and maize form 95 percent
of our plant food supplies. And it’s been a great strategy because in a short space of time
you can produce a lot of seed. Seeds are energy-rich
so there’s a lot of food calories, you can store it in times of plenty
for times of famine, but there’s a downside. The vegetative tissues, the roots and leaves of annuals, do not have much by way of inherent resistance,
avoidance or tolerance characteristics. They just don’t need them. They grow in the rainy season and they’ve got a seed
to help them survive the rest of the year. And so despite concerted
efforts in agriculture to make crops with improved properties of resistance, avoidance and tolerance — particularly resistance and avoidance because we’ve had good models
to understand how those work — we still get images like this. Maize crop in Africa, two weeks without rain and it’s dead. There is a solution: resurrection plants. These plants can lose 95 percent
of their cellular water, remain in a dry, dead-like state
for months to years, and give them water, they green up and start growing again. Like seeds, these are
desiccation-tolerant. Like seeds, these can withstand extremes
of environmental conditions. And this is a really rare phenomenon. There are only 135 flowering
plant species that can do this. I’m going to show you a video of the resurrection process
of these three species in that order. And at the bottom, there’s a time axis
so you can see how quickly it happens. (Applause) Pretty amazing, huh? So I’ve spent the last 21 years
trying to understand how they do this. How do these plants dry without dying? And I work on a variety
of different resurrection plants, shown here in the hydrated and dry states, for a number of reasons. One of them is that each
of these plants serves as a model for a crop that I’d like
to make drought-tolerant. So on the extreme top left,
for example, is a grass, it’s called Eragrostis nindensis, it’s got a close relative
called Eragrostis tef — a lot of you might know it as “teff” — it’s a staple food in Ethiopia, it’s gluten-free, and it’s something we would like
to make drought-tolerant. The other reason for looking
at a number of plants, is that, at least initially, I wanted to find out:
do they do the same thing? Do they all use the same mechanisms to be able to lose
all that water and not die? So I undertook what we call
a systems biology approach in order to get
a comprehensive understanding of desiccation tolerance, in which we look at everything from the molecular to the whole plant,
ecophysiological level. For example we look at things like changes in the plant anatomy
as they dried out and their ultrastructure. We look at the transcriptome,
which is just a term for a technology in which we look at the genes that are switched on or off,
in response to drying. Most genes will code for proteins,
so we look at the proteome. What are the proteins made
in response to drying? Some proteins would code for enzymes
which make metabolites, so we look at the metabolome. Now, this is important
because plants are stuck in the ground. They use what I call
a highly tuned chemical arsenal to protect themselves from all
the stresses of their environment. So it’s important that we look at the chemical changes
involved in drying. And at the last study
that we do at the molecular level, we look at the lipidome — the lipid changes in response to drying. And that’s also important because all biological membranes
are made of lipids. They’re held as membranes
because they’re in water. Take away the water,
those membranes fall apart. Lipids also act as signals
to turn on genes. Then we use physiological
and biochemical studies to try and understand
the function of the putative protectants that we’ve actually discovered
in our other studies. And then use all of that
to try and understand how the plant copes
with its natural environment. I’ve always had the philosophy that
I needed a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in order to make a meaningful suggestion
for a biotic application. I’m sure some of you are thinking, “By biotic application, does she mean she’s going to make
genetically modified crops?” And the answer to that question is: depends on your definition
of genetic modification. All of the crops that we eat today,
wheat, rice and maize, are highly genetically modified
from their ancestors, but we don’t consider them GM because they’re being produced
by conventional breeding. If you mean, am I going to put
resurrection plant genes into crops, your answer is yes. In the essence of time,
we have tried that approach. More appropriately,
some of my collaborators at UCT, Jennifer Thomson, Suhail Rafudeen, have spearheaded that approach and I’m going to show you some data soon. But we’re about to embark
upon an extremely ambitious approach, in which we aim to turn on
whole suites of genes that are already present in every crop. They’re just never turned on
under extreme drought conditions. I leave it up to you to decide whether those should be called GM or not. I’m going to now just give you
some of the data from that first approach. And in order to do that I have to explain a little bit
about how genes work. So you probably all know that genes are made
of double-stranded DNA. It’s wound very tightly into chromosomes that are present in every cell
of your body or in a plant’s body. If you unwind that DNA, you get genes. And each gene has a promoter, which is just an on-off switch, the gene coding region, and then a terminator, which indicates that this is the end
of this gene, the next gene will start. Now, promoters are not
simple on-off switches. They normally require
a lot of fine-tuning, lots of things to be present and correct
before that gene is switched on. So what’s typically done
in biotech studies is that we use an inducible promoter, we know how to switch it on. We couple that to genes of interest and put that into a plant
and see how the plant responds. In the study that I’m going
to talk to you about, my collaborators used
a drought-induced promoter, which we discovered
in a resurrection plant. The nice thing about this promoter
is that we do nothing. The plant itself senses drought. And we’ve used it to drive antioxidant
genes from resurrection plants. Why antioxidant genes? Well, all stresses,
particularly drought stress, results in the formation of free radicals, or reactive oxygen species, which are highly damaging
and can cause crop death. What antioxidants do is stop that damage. So here’s some data from a maize strain
that’s very popularly used in Africa. To the left of the arrow
are plants without the genes, to the right — plants with the antioxidant genes. After three weeks without watering, the ones with the genes
do a hell of a lot better. Now to the final approach. My research has shown
that there’s considerable similarity in the mechanisms of desiccation tolerance
in seeds and resurrection plants. So I ask the question, are they using the same genes? Or slightly differently phrased, are resurrection plants using genes
evolved in seed desiccation tolerance in their roots and leaves? Have they retasked these seed genes in roots and leaves
of resurrection plants? And I answer that question, as a consequence of a lot
of research from my group and recent collaborations from a group
of Henk Hilhorst in the Netherlands, Mel Oliver in the United States and Julia Buitink in France. The answer is yes, that there is a core set of genes
that are involved in both. And I’m going to illustrate this
very crudely for maize, where the chromosomes below the off switch represent all the genes that are required
for desiccation tolerance. So as maize seeds dried out
at the end of their period of development, they switch these genes on. Resurrection plants
switch on the same genes when they dry out. All modern crops, therefore, have these genes
in their roots and leaves, they just never switch them on. They only switch them on in seed tissues. So what we’re trying to do right now is to understand the environmental
and cellular signals that switch on these genes
in resurrection plants, to mimic the process in crops. And just a final thought. What we’re trying to do very rapidly is to repeat what nature did
in the evolution of resurrection plants some 10 to 40 million years ago. My plants and I thank you
for your attention. (Applause)

Comments 100

  • At 1:50 Russia is like, "Haha, you guys are stuffed!"

  • as long as she keeps the poison in the usa im ok with it. you already are a ticking biological time bomb with all the frankenstein organism you introduced.
    there are so many more envoirmental and healthy (and simply better) solutions … but yeah theyre illegal in the usa (hemp is very dangerous! you could eat it and get omega 3 or even what would happen if people started building houses out of it?? that would be THE END! rather poison them making their gut biome fucked up)

  • Great idea but we could also simply stop eating meat and use the agricultural produce to feed humans instead of cows.. Reduce hunger, reduce diabetes, obesity, heart disease, cancer, reduce green house gases…

  • This is still missing the point. Deserts spread through poor agricultural practices. They can also be reversed through proper agricultural practices, like holistic grazing and growing on earthworks like contour swales, gabions, and check dams. As bare soil increases a hot current of air rises up and pushes moist air away, preventing more rain. So instead if working so hard on engineering plants we just change our behavior and increase the water-holding capacity of the soil by shading the soil under mulch and living plants. Moisture rises, makes clouds, falls down. That initial map showing the spreading arid lands is only true if we continue as is. Look into visionaries like Ernest Gotsch of Brazil who is regenerating huge swaths in Brazil. Geoff Lawton who regenerates truly dessicated land through passive water-holding techniques based on earthworks. Masanobu Fukuoka. Hugelkultur. What this lady dies is interesting but only a bandage. Shifting the overall fertility potential of the landscape is a lot of work at first but steadily gets easier over time. Still pretty cool, but far more effort for something that doesn't address the basic problem of evening out the overall moisture balance of the system

  • Great. One billion more poor people to keep from starving.

  • Captions on by default for South African accent? wut?

  • so by 2050 thanks to climate change the uk should be to dry to grow crops but also under water?, can you see why such a large percentage of the population believes climate science is bullshit

  • i dont understand all of your talk. Can i have full your subtitles?Thanks

  • Very good speach.

  • wonderful talk, dont believe projections of the future though…need i remind everyone California and Florida were supposed to be under water as of last year.

  • plant to plant GMO doesn't seem as bad as adding fish an pig genes to plants but I guess we won't know what negative side-effects till its out in the world getting eatin

  • i haven't watched this all the way yet, but resurrection plants require the production of the sugar trehalose… not sure how she proposes getting our food crops to produce enough trehalose to be able to resurrect.
    well watched it.. and yes it looks like she's talking about the expression of trehalose transgenes… smart idea… those pathways would exist in the seeds, so the plants would already have sequences for trehalose production… very good insight… definitely not something i had considered… and timely… roughly 70-80% of fresh water use goes to agriculture. even modest improvements in this area will have drastic impacts on our fresh water demands.
    Regardless of any personal feelings on this topic, in the end It is scientists and engineers like this women who will save this planet, and our species.

  • Shouldn't we just reduce the amount of mouths to feed?
    Like, that'd reduce the need for as much food, would cut down environmental damage and make it easier to help out the less fortunate people as we have more resources to allocate between a smaller amount of people.

  • 0:53 – okay, who moved to the Pacific Ocean again?

  • I wish I didn't need water. Having to pee is the worst.

  • loved the way the plants Thanked ppl at the end of the talk 😀 . All the best for your vision 🙂

  • This is great, it's not heavy genetic mod so hopefully the fearful ignorant masses will be at ease. The plant clap was cute too.

  • dont worry old lady , worlds population will be greatly reduced by the US army till 2050 , dont worry

  • another Lobbyist from the GM Rockefeller foundation !!! Scumbag !!

  • It all makes sense now. The out of control population growth is in poorer geographies. So when the Green Movement talks about population control and clean energy they are talking about the same thing. Removing cheap energy from these poor places makes mass death a certainty.

  • This isn't going to really help the true problem though; the real problem will be rainfall and fruiting. If a plant survives a small drought, that's all fine and good….but if it is stunted in growth, it may not grow much fruit in the end, or worse, may not grow any harvestable fruit by the time the growing season is over.

    On top of that, if a plant is fruiting while the drought occurs, the fruit will probably die or won't grow as well, or could even do other weird things like becoming more pulpy or thicker skinned. In the end, these will not only make for bad tasting fruit, it could also lack in nutrition.

    So a better solution it seems, is to make sure there is more water, even if it must be pumped from the ocean. We as a species, need to solve the water problem, and create massive desalination plants automated and run on solar energy. Costly at first, cheap in the long run.

    We have to realize that the plants we grow today, are designed around growing larger quantities with more flavor; they're generally much more brittle than their ancestors. Sure we add some tolerances for things like diseases, sometimes sacrifice flavor for yield…..but what kind of future is it where we sacrifice flavor? I'd say the better solution is to prevent from having soo many mouths to feed in the first place, rather than to be brought down by over population….otherwise we'll all end up eating tasteless blocks of food substance while billions of people choke the world.

  • copy+pastes prepared message from imageboard saying it's so great that this woman talked about a science thing and not one of those annoying social justice things

    "Yes yes, I am not wasting my life for sure"

  • Just wonderful with "how do you define genetically modefied". There are enough issues to discuss but not even knowing that it is not about the mere process of genetical modification but the extent of it is helping nobody.

  • How about data and not just 'global warming PROJECTIONS'..;
    With so many lies it is hard for those of us who are concerned to know what to believe.

  • Can I translate and write rabic subtitles directly using YouTube?

  • Awesome lecture, thanks TED & Ms. Jill Fallant, indeed we need more lectures like this…

  • …….. Yo, Dude and Dodette,
    If you feed them, they will reproduce naturally and double the population once again. Let Mother Nature take care of them naturally.

  • So clever, well done Jill

  • Ballonnen die mogelijk heel wienig vocht bevatten kunnen mogelijk omdat ze lichter zijn dan lucht en lucht meer uitzet omdaqt er minder druk op staat steeds hoger stijgen dus weinig vocht stijgt het met veel lucht zonder vocht het is mijn theorie dat ballonen dan stijgen gaan als alleen maar lucht erin zit zonder vocht

  • meer lucht in een balon en zonder vocht in de balon ik neem aan dat het dan minder gewicht heeft en dus mogelijk kan gaan stijgen

  • ik neem aan dat zo dus ook een hetelucht balon werkt het vocht stoomd weg de lucht blijft over en dan gaat de balon stijgen of het daardoor komt probeer en je komt erachter maar daar ben ik niet kundig in maar andere mensen juist wel

  • luchtvochtigheid hoe hoger het is des te minder vocht en dan uiteindelijk totaal geen vocht meer en zo eigenlijk iets bouwen dat zo hoog reikt dat het de atomosfeer bereikt maar dit is als het niet zou kunnen fantasie van een onwetende fantast ja van een fantast is het dan

  • tot aan de top van de atmosfeer bedoel ik maar als dus steeds minder vocht steeds hoger is en dus lucht bovenin helemaal zonder vocht is dat het zo zit en des te meer alleen maar lucht in plaats van vocht dat zo steeds hoger gebouwd kan worden en dat het totaan de dampkringrand kan komen het is van een fantast in feite snap je of het zo zit heeft die alleen maar een vermoeden van maar bewijs of feiten die het bekrachtigen heeft die niet alleen maar het vermoeden zo zeg ik fantast wand hij gaat van vermoedens uit die waar of onwaar kunnen zijn

  • a great talk, very hopeful, thank you

  • We have no problem producing food for the whole world.
    The problem lies in that we are very wasteful with our produce and resources.

    30% of grown food don't make it to supermarket because there is a slight blemish or slightly distorted shape. And 40% of food in the supermarket rots because no one bought it. There are tonnes of rice, apples, oranges and other commodities that are discarded and wasted because they simply didn't meet the current market price. Go to any bakery shop and see how many loaf of bread are discarded because they haven't been bought.
    50% of discarded food goes back to landfill, 25% gets donated to charity, 25% goes to compost. Go to any middle-class home and you will find 30% of food in their fridge gets thrown away. Go to any restaurant and you will find 25% of their food are thrown away. Go to any grocery store and you will find 10% of canned food expired and will be thrown away.

  • Overpopulation bullsh1t After 2050 there will be decline ,huge one. Earth is UNDERpopulated and people are being made infertile.

  • To date, you could fit all of the world's population in Texas, with a house, and a large yard. With new developments by Israel, hordes can be fed with a very small, intensive area. Aquaponics is fantastic. Tepary beans are irrigated once, at planting, then no more. Irrigation is detrimental because the plant developed to produce during the annual drought. Desert maize, like teocinte and domesticated varieties were developed to produce in very dry areas with scant rain. Some domesticated varieties of maize will get up to 6 full ears in a good rain year. All thrive in seething heat and drought conditions. Varieties of squash were developed for the same reasons. The Anasazi went thru a century of lethal drought and survived because of these plants. Mesquite (honey is the best) is tasty and eagerly sought by humans and animals alike. It can produce a crop on as little as 2" of moisture.

  • the challenge is going to be figuring out why all these humans are randomly dieing after eating in a market saturated with GM crops.

  • Why are scientists insisting on projecting a diminutive map of Africa? The continent is several times larger than represented here. Google "Peter's Projection Map".

  • My thoughts are, do resurrection plants, since genetically modified, produce unwanted enzymes or other things that are problematic to our health?

  • GMOs 8- {]

  • What is the adverse effect on humans or animals that eat these crops?

  • 70% of all crops grown go to waste due to: synthetic farming (accelerated scenesence), loss in transportation, thrown away in the store so only gorgeous fruits/veggies are sold and of course spoilage at home.

  • But mah gwobal warming!! al gire says we are all under sea level now!!

  • great video and well presented talk

  • Can the resurrection genes transfer to humans eventually through the consumption of said GMO? Would we shrivel up and then come back to life?…

    Back to life as what? 😀

  • What an amazing talk!

  • thank you

  • (monoatmic gold) 😉

  • Except we are going into a gsm..but someplaces will be drought…and its time for required birth control …big time…and mass genocide murdering of the farmers who know how to grow crops isnt such a good idea for the african racisist…and have the iq to do it.

  • Such a common thing tackling a problem by adapting to it, instead of trying to solve it. Wouldn't be better to reduce the growing, arid areas of the world by regenerating ecosystems? It may be expensive, as all that research is, but it will be a better solution.

  • Or just promote food forests and de-desertification projects…

  • You dont know that plants did this 10-40 millions of years ago… ignorance at its best… Stop trying to play with Gods creation as every single GM crop has more negatives than positives.

  • Problem is are any of those plants edible? Can they be grown in large quantity? If no one can eat them, why grow them? Waste of space energy water etc….

  • Sadly, most major American cities throw away that 70% you're looking for via the restaurant industry.

  • That problem has already been solved decades ago in the late 60s in the Soviet Union during the Cold War. And now you are talking as if the answer is new?

  • It would be so cool, if we could actually decode the DNA language, so we can actually write code ourselves. There are decompilers for binary code. Maybe we can do something similar for DNA sometime in the future.

  • But can you eat the ressurection plant when they are not fully ressurected? People can die of starvation while waiting. Why not concentrate on better water conservation and utilization.

  • I think restructuring the landscapes are most important as most land are hard and flat,Terracing and swales forces water into the underground allowing forests to flourish and thus changing the atmosphere from dry to moist conditions,water condensers collects water from the air and Fog Nets works in cool nights as has happen IN PERU.China discovered a plant fibre that when mixed with sands becomes soil,highly useful.

  • you know get you got to see a phony for what it is science is always think they can fix things and change God's will against things that you created to grow but this lady just pushing climate change with it there there's no such thing and just change the name over history taxation through government.. government control of each country she doesn't mention anything about the jet stream that flows over the United States in around the world changes globally Japanese have Little known this for 5000 years

  • I'm going to have a copyright to create that right I guarantee and Monsanto is right in the middle of all this getting this woman to be paid to speak like this like we're all a bunch of idiots that we can't figure out how to take care of ourselves be careful so she got people like this always trying to come up with ideas like this somebody's going to make money off of it

  • watch out for government who tries to use people like this to make us all think there's a Doomsday and they think that by creating this new kind of plant that's going to solve our problem you know monsanto thought the same thing by creating an idea by making a seed is copyrighted that we all have to buy to grow so we can enjoy the benefits of a tolerant crop that doesn't need much water well we already have that American Indians knew that the Hopi Indians knew that the Egyptians knew that they already knew all these things we as a community can take care of ourselves globally we don't need a government or some scientists to tell us that there's always this destruction or how we can fix it destruction when the earth wasn't destroyed anyway we're destroying it when we allow people like this to try to tell us we need them to help us think

  • Hate to say it but the problem about climate change that I haven't heard a single conversation about is our own self interest in survival. Maybe climate change is nothing more than the planets reaction to overpopulation. Enough of us die off and I bet climate change would self correct.

  • This is not a good idea! There are farming systems already that can produce food in the dessert.

  • I'll invest my money into agriculture for now 70% is a large number

  • Imagine if you made humans able to survive dehydration like this, people would find actual mummies and bring you back in 2000 years

  • As always TED is far more focused on protecting the status quo (i.e.: obscenely inequitable distribution of wealth) than on arriving at viable solutions.. We cannot survive without a viable ecosystem even if we did manage to develop a food source independent of it. The ecosystem provides the oxygen we breath and keeps the temperature of the planet within the limits tolerable to life. We must find ways to preserve the distribution of water, not ways to maintain our food supply while letting our aquifers run dry.

    As usual, the exact same idiots who have come up with an endless series of "solutions" to the problems their previous "solutions" created that merely compound the problems, have come up with yet another "solution" guarenteed to make things even worse than they were.

    The only viable solution is to learn to live within our means on a SUSTAINABLE basis. That inevitably means imposing restraints on the infinite greed of the ruling elite. Since they clearly cannot comprehend the idea of limits on their greed, we're going to have to do this ourselves.

  • check out Paul Wheaton. He offers many alternative solutions to gmos.

  • Your research gives me a feeling that we have really messed up with the nature and people need more than talks to understand it.

  • Blows me away how scientists can get so wound up in something that is so easily fixed there really is truly not a problem with the amount of water on this earth the problem is we have concentrated our efforts into growing monoculture crops around the world instead of growing our own food in our yards in our parks. this can be done in all of our forest and our deserts everywhere around the world we can replant with edibles oh all types perennials annuals fruit trees nut trees. the trees and the plants Are what bring the water to the land and hold it in the landing on the land a constant exchange between the earth and the atmosphere the trees controlled this. but we continue to cut down our trees and continue to rely on big agriculture to feed us, Clearing land for new subdivisions without any thought of the vegetation on the land or any thought of planting subdivisions in a sustainable food production system. These systems can change our entire ecosystems and create their own microclimates in our neighborhoods and all over the world in all types of climates from the harshest driest to the coldest weather this is been proven in several places in the world today if all governments from all nations came together in their own nations and started replanting the earth in abundance this earth would be repaired in 10 years and the return would be 10 to a 1,000 Fold. These men have seen it done Bill Mollison, John D Lou and the (Loess plateau), Greoff Lawton, Toby Hemenway, David Holmgren.

  • Hears a better answer https://youtu.be/I2xDZlpInik

  • Who is she?

  • So Your Predictions are whole europe will be without rains, yeah Poland, Litva, ukraina, yeah, oh boy… also i got better solution: permaculture, basicly You just make mulch for solid 15 cm (6 inches) and the water will remain, its common knowledge, and its natural, no need for artificial gmo, which consequences are unpredictable.

  • we already have the resources to feed the whole planet but the food is fed to livestock. people just need to change their habits thats all…

  • i for one want my crops EXTRA modified plz.

  • Crap GMO endangering the non-modifies plants either as their pollen spreads

  • how in the flowering stage,

  • Anything about water plants?

  • Climate change – higher temperature, biger water surface, biger evaporation and less rain – how it is possible ? No any sense  !!!

  • We can make water
    www.youtube.com/watch?v=WAvBkaSg5kw
    A LOT!!!

    Lakes are not touch, rivers are not touch, big picture, everyone happy.
    Fucking 7 billion people! BTW – climate change:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5nSGJ7EMMiI
    is good!

  • Wait…. She said if you lose 1% of your water you die. I know that 300 lb lineman can lose around 20 lbs of water in a couple hour practice. That's well over 1%…

  • #HempCanSaveTheWorld

  • She has some interesting things to say in the beginning but genetic modification shouldnt be promoted,we are not there yet. There are plenty of natural methods and modern resources of de-desertification and ending world hunger. We need to go backwards and reconstruct nature rather than destroy what remains or take short cuts. its like you're saying WE NEED TO GENERALLY MODIFY THE REMAINING LIONS TO BE VEGETARIAN BECAUSE WE LOVE THE DEERS SO MUCH.

  • Hmmm? Lack of rain… geoengineering. Well, what do you know humans are creating the problem of less rain. Why??? Could money be involved? Of course not.

  • hydroponics and or aquaponics is the answer.

  • Its what they craave

  • Or develop to grow saltwater tolerant crops and irrigate w sea water. Kelp at least is one.

  • What WE really need is world population to stop growing altogether. The earth cannot support 7+ billion people.

  • Ever wonder how much water is trapped in bottles, cans, and pipes?

  • Can't wait to get home garden plants gmoed into resurrection plants.

  • Overpopulation pose a great risk of earth limited resources, we see forest and vegetation turned into wasted lands to satisfy human needs, and we even pollute areas once prestine, great forest lands cut down for farmlands and habitation, mountains turned barren due to mining and rivers and waters polluted due to human ignorance and negligence , then we become so vulnerable even to natural disturbances, then we cries back to earth for this misery, and as always realization only come us when calamity strikes, even all this things that are happening now we dont really pay close attention, I say seriousness is only a word we are not seriously committed to, we make environmental laws to mitigitate destruction but still keep on doing that same destruction, we pay 💰 for what we sow… and we know were bounded for self destruction, but who knows what’s going to happened next!!!

  • Shout out to Professor Morris

  • investing in plants that don't produce any food. We need to restore grassland and put animal herds on them to restart the cycle of life. grasslands put CO2 back into the soil and then feed people from the investment and then overtime you can reuse the grassland as farming land. Cycle of life. Stop killing our Grasslands.

  • Convince gov to let everyone have an acre of free tax free fertile land that they can live on and grow a food forest on.

  • pollution not overpopulation

  • No GMO.. I’m fine the way it’s, even all plants die due to global warming. We deserve it

  • Amazing talk and great idea.

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Md3dqyZoT54

  • Never trust a woman with such a short haircut and a single earring😜. Interesting talk, but falls way short of realistic sustainable farming.

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