NASA ARSET: Remote Sensing for Conservation, Session 1/2


Hello everyone and welcome to our
webinars on remote sensing for conservation and biodiversity. My name is
Cindy Schmidt and I’ll be doing the webinar today on remote sensing for
conservation. And my colleague, Amber McCullum, will be doing the webinar on
biodiversity. As a reminder we are offering these webinars in two one-hour
sessions on today, January 22nd, and a second one on biodiversity on January
24th. The same content will be presented at the two different times each day. The
webinar recordings, the presentations, and the homework assignment can be found
after each session at the website listed here and then following the end of this
session we will have a Q&A session. You can answer – ask questions of us and
then after the session you can send us emails at our email addresses listed
here. There will be one homework assignment.
The answers will be submitted via a Google Form and the deadline for that
homework is February 7th. You will also get a certificate of completion if you
have attended both live webinars and completed the homework assignment by the deadline. Just a note that you will receive certificates about two months
after the completion of the course. There’s only one prerequisite for this
webinar, since this is an overview webinar and we highly recommend that you take a look at Introduction to Remote Sensing, our on-demand webinar, or have
equivalent knowledge – some level of remote sensing. For the webinar today and
the webinar that we’ll be doing on Thursday, to access course materials
you’ll need to go to this FTP website that’s listed here. So, this is
a little different than we’ve done in the past where we’ve had all our
materials available on the ARSET website. But for this webinar series
you’ll need to go to this FTP website and you can see an example of what that
FTP website is and then download that material to your computer. So, in session
1, I will be discussing remote sensing for conservation, and in session 2 Amber
McCullum will be discussing remote sensing for biodiversity. Both of these
webinars are overviews of each of these topics and will include case studies so
you can see how remote sensing is used for different aspects of conservation
and biodiversity. So, we’re really happy that all of you have joined this webinar
and as you watch this webinar and listen to information about especially about
the case studies. If there are ways that you can let us know what you are
specifically interested in, if there’s a specific tool or a methodology, or an
approach that you would like maybe more in-depth training on, please feel free to
let us know. So, our agenda for today is first an overview of remote sensing for
conservation, then I’ll be discussing habitat suitability and the uses of
remote sensing data for assessing habitat suitability and a case study
example. Then I’ll discuss species population dynamics, again emphasizing
the uses of remote sensing data as well as a couple case studies. And lastly I’ll
discuss wildfire monitoring for conservation, the uses of remote sensing
data, and one case study First, a little bit about habitat suitability. It’s very difficult to determine exactly where different animal
and plant species currently are because of the challenges in collecting that
information. Often species location information collected in the field is
combined with environmental information to determine habitat preferences, then
models are used to estimate where a potential habitat is using the
environmental or predictor variables that are best correlated with species
presence. Those models can then be used to identify other geographic regions
with similar environmental characteristics. On the right, a habitat
suitability index was derived for identifying potential habitats of
Jaguars in Mexico. A habitat suitability index describes the suitability and
quality of a given habitat by combining the interactions of all key
environmental variables into a model. Species distribution models follow the
ecological niche approach by assessing the suitability of habitat for species.
The models use raster based layers such as land cover, elevation, etc. as
predictors of suitable habitat. The predictor data is combined with either
presence and absence data or species abundance data in empirical statistical
models. These models provide the basis for the case study that I will be
presenting to you next. This project, called, “A Decision Support System to Monitor and Inform Chimpanzee Habitat Management” was conducted by Lilian Pintea with the Jane Goodall Institute with technical support from colleagues at the University of Maryland, College Park. According to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature approximately 66% of chimpanzees have declined over the past 40 years. In fact, all four sub-species of chimpazees have been classified as endangered on the IUCN Red List. Their declining populations are primarily due to habitat loss, hunting and illegal bushmeat consumption. This project used information from satellite imagery to monitor habitat loss. The objective of this project was to develop a decision support system to monitor and
forecast chimpanzee habitat throughout Africa to inform conservation monitoring
plans at the regional and local levels. The image on the right shows the study
area with the IUCN Red List ranges of the four chimpanzee subspecies overlaid
on top of data showing percent canopy cover. Although the Jane Goodall
Institute knew that chimpanzee habitat had been disappearing for many years, it
wasn’t until they saw the forest loss from satellite imagery that they
understood the extent of the loss over time and space. The red in this map shows forest loss between 2000-2014 in key chimpanzee habitat areas. The project team used chimpanzee presence data and predictor variables such as bioclimatic data, forest cover products derived from Landsat imagery, human population density, proximity to roads and proximity to navigable rivers to develop a chimpanzee habitat suitability map and two different resolutions, one at 5 km and one at 30 m, shown on the right. The project found that elevation, Landsat ETM+ band 5 and Landsat derived canopy cover were the strongest predictors. More information about the methodology used in developing the habitat suitability map can be found in the paper listed at the bottom here: Jantz et al 2016. Here is a list of satellite-derived input data to the habitat suitability model including direct spectral information from Landsat bands information about forest structure, disturbance and fragmentation derived from Landsat, and topographic data derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography mission. So, one of the
questions we’d like to ask you is if you use remote sensing to monitor habitat
suitability. Which datasets do you find most useful? Do you use any of the
datasets listed in this particular slide, or do you use other ones? So, we’ll give
you about 30 seconds to just type into the question box some information about
the informa- about the datasets – that you use. Central to this project was engaging local communities in the conservation and monitoring process. Local villagers used mobile devices to collect monitoring data such as nest location. The project team members showed them the habitat maps and the extent of habitat
loss. Working in partnership with the villagers, the monitoring data they collect combined with a variety of remote sensing imagery and it’s helped
the Jane Goodall Institute as well as other organizations better track and
understand the relationship between habitat needs and the status of forest
habitats. The villagers use this information to make conservation and
land-use decisions. This map shows habitat suitability in 2014 with a majority of the habitat classified as good or very good, but some in the northwest region classified as fair. But by 2016, much of the region had changed to fair or poor. Hopefully by working with the local communities the Jane Goodall Institute and other organizations can help develop
restoration plans to improve chimpanzee habitat. Next I will discuss how
satellite remote sensing can be used for species population dynamics. One of the challenges of collecting information about animal species is because they do not stay in one place. They move within their ranges or migrate to other regions. Species population dynamics tries to determine the variation of species geographic distributions and abundances across space and time. The challenge for using satellite remote sensing is how do we get that information at appropriates geographic and temporal scales, especially in very dynamic environments like rivers or oceans? A great example is determining species population dynamics of fish in rivers – we know fish live in rivers but how do we characterize such a dynamic environment and relate that to fish populations? There are several ways to collect information about location and abundance of mobile species for use with remote sensing data. These include direct observations telemetry and more recently camera traps and environmental DNA – or eDNA. Next I will be describing some projects that use each of these methods for collecting species information. Whale Watch is a project led by Dr. Helen Baily at the University of Maryland to help reduce human impacts on whales by providing near real-time information on where they occur and where whales may be most at risk from threats such as ship strikes, entanglements and loud underwater sounds. Information about whale location was obtained from tagging whales and
tracking them with satellites. This information was combined with sea
surface temperature, chlorophyll concentration and sea surface height to
develop models of whale occurrence. The result are maps of likelihood of Blue whale occurrence as well as an estimate of the number of whales off the U.S. West Coast. This project, led by Dr. Gordon Luikart at the University of Montana combines demography and genetic information from salmonids with environmental factors from satellite imagery and other sources to assess vulnerability to climate change. The team uses environmental DNA, or e-DNA, to get information about the fish, which is collected from water samples. E-DNA is genetic material obtained directly from environmental samples without any obvious signs of biological source material. The ability to combine landscape information with genetic information is really new and exciting and the use of eDNA is an incredibly important emerging tool in conservation for monitoring animal species. The project found that variation in salmonid population productivity is related to environmental conditions and habitat quality and quantity. Some of the remote sensing variables used in this work are listed in the table on the right. You will note a few satellite sensors that you may have not seen before like AMSR-E. AMSR-E stands for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS, or Earth observing system. It is a passive microwave radiometer that measures precipitation rate, cloud water, water vapor, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ice, snow and soil moisture. It operated on the Aqua satellite from 2002 to 2011. AMSR-2 was launched on the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, or JAXA’s GCOM-W1 spacecraft May 2012 and is still currently operating. Other types of data that might be unfamiliar to you is NAIP, which stands for the National Agriculture Imagery Program, which provides aerial photography for the United States. NASA NEX-DCP 30 is the NASA Earth Exchange Downscaled Climate Projections available only for the conterminous United States. NASA GRUMP or G-R-U-M-P is the Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, produced by NASA’s Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center which provides information about human settlement and population trends globally. This project has developed a web-based support tool that allows decision-makers to access
and visualize information on fish habitats and vulnerability. It includes some basic vulnerability assessment tools and landscape genetic tools. It currently on covers the northwest portion of the U.S. You can find out more information about the tools and methodology on the website listed here. Also, we plan on offering an introductory webinar on remote sensing for freshwater habitats in 2019. This webinar will go more in depth into some of the methodology used to incorporate remote sensing into monitoring freshwater
habitats. So please stay tuned for that! So, when we develop this webinar for
the freshwater habitats, we’re really interested in knowing: what are some of
the pressing topics that you’re interested in in learning about how
remote sensing is used for freshwater habitats? So we’ll give you a few seconds
to just type in the question box about things that you might be interested in
pertaining to a future webinar. And then of course, after this webinar is over
please feel free to contact me directly to let me know what you would love to
see and the freshwater habitats webinar series In this next project, led by Dr. Phil Townsend at the University of Wisconsin, involves monitoring wildlife across the state of Wisconsin using trail cameras. A crowdsourcing platform is used to identify the wildlife species and that information is combined with satellite remote sensing data to characterize the habitat of key species.
The trail cameras have been located throughout the entire state and
have been wildly popular. A lot of volunteers establish and maintain those
cameras.The numbers on the top reflect the numbers of volunteers cameras and
photos in 2017, and the numbers in the box on the right reflect the numbers in
spring 2018. So you can see how this project is very popular and continues to
grow. One of the most innovative and successful parts of this project is the
use of a crowdsourcing platform called Zooniverse. The photos from the trail
cameras are uploaded to the platform and then anyone can identify what’s in the
photo. For example, in this picture you can see a deer and can select deer on
the right as the animal that you see. This approach enables the identification
of millions of photos and therefore locations and abundance of animal
species. I encourage you all to take a look at it by going to snapshotwisconsin.org. I personally have had a lot of fun identifying these animals. These are just a few great pictures from
the trip trail cameras and all the different sorts of animals in the state
of Wisconsin. The project team has combined all the information from the
trail cameras with satellite remote sensing data like land cover and
vegetation indices to get better estimates of deer population size and
locations. These images are a comparison of
dear abundance using the old method on the left with the new method on the
right. The old method did not use camera traps or remote sensing imagery. High
abundance is in red and orange and low abundance is in blue and green. So you
can see that the new method, which does use trail cameras and remote sensing
imagery, shows a lot less deer in the north and a lot more deer in the west in
the southwestern part of the state. As a result, the state will be able to manage
their deer populations better. This project, led by Dr. Heather Lynch at Stony Brook, used Landsat imagery to identify the location of
penguin colonies in the Antarctic. Because the penguin colonies are so
large and they nest on rocks, the imagery can be used to detect guano stains on
the rocks. The team developed an algorithm for Landsat imagery that can
automatically detect the guano stains. This allowed them to locate previously
unknown colonies Last year, the team used that algorithm to discover penguin and petrel mega colonies – which are huge colonies of birds. They acquired funding to send a research team to the Danger Islands based on the right side here based on the detection
of the penguin mega colony. This was very significant because prior to the
discovery, no one knew this large colony of penguins even existed on the Danger
Islands. The image on the right shows the research team on Danger Island surrounded by penguins. So you can see how large a colony that really is. The
significance of finding penguins here has been huge. Prior to this discovery
the Danger Islands were not considered a high priority for conservation but this
is now being revised as a direct result of this discovery. Lastly I want to discuss the ways wildfire monitoring has been used for conservation.
satellite products for wildfire The best satellite products for wildfire monitoring are the near-real time products available from MODIS and VIIRS. MODIS active fire products are available at 1km spatial resolution for the last 24 and 48 hours and 7 days. The size of the fire that can be detected depends on many different variables such as scan angle, sun position and so on, but it typically detects fires 1000 sq. meters in size or larger. However under very good observing conditions, smaller fires can be detected. The VIIRS active fire product is an improvement on the MODIS product because of it’s increased spatial resolution of 375 meters. It is also available for every 24 and 48 hours, and 7 days. You can access both MODIS and VIIRS active fire products through NASA’s Fire Information for Resource Management System, or FIRMS. It has a visualization tool, but it also enables fire email alerts and the ability to download data. You can access FIRMS through the website listed here Next I’m going to discuss a project that has used the near-real time active fire products for conservation monitoring, called FIRECAST. FIRECAST was developed in response to the loss of tropical forest that is occurring every year for many reasons, including agricultural fires. The loss of the forest is resulting in biodiversity loss, carbon emissions and degradation of ecosystems services. FIRECAST, led by Karyn Tabor at Conservation International, uses active fire information from MODIS and VIIRS to track various ecosystem disturbances such as fires, deforestation and protected area encroachment. It also delivers information about fire risk conditions, all through email alerts, maps and reports. FIRECAST currently operates in Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Suriname, Madagascar and Indonesia. The primary products for FIRECAST are hourly MODIS and VIIRS active fire alerts, estimates of weather conditions to generate a daily indicator of forest flammability risk. Sea surface temperature and other data are used to forecast fire season severity. You can find out more information about Firecast through the website listed here. Next, I will show you examples of how Firecast has been used. In Bolivia, expanding agriculture and ranching has resulted in increased forest fires. Those fires increase dramatically in size under dry or drought conditions. Firecast has been used in Bolivia as an input into a national flammability alert system, to alert local communities when conditions are particularly dry. The goal is to reduce burning agricultural fields during peak fire conditions. In Peru, the FIRECAST data is used to provide alerts when there is forest disturbance. Local communities have used the alerts to fly drones over areas of suspected illegal logging. I hope that this webinar has provided
helpful information on how satellite remote sensing is being used for
conservation. Specifically, I’ve shown you that it’s successfully being used for
assessing habitat suitability and being combined in very innovative ways with
species location information to understand dynamic habitats and animal
movement. Lastly, near real-time wild…wildfire
products can be used to determine where wildfire and other disturbances are
threatening protected areas. If you are interested in any of the tools or
products or methodologies used to develop the tools or products, please
either go to the websites listed in the presentation or please feel free to
contact me. Again I want to encourage you all to think about how these approaches, these methodologies, these tools that you’ve seen presented to you today and
the additional tools that will be presented to you in the biodiversity
webinar how you can…how you might be able to use this information in what you
do and we would love to get feedback on that. [Automatically Generated Captions for Demo & Q&A] So what you’re hopefully seeing at this
point is a view of the website called snapshot Wisconsin. This is the one I
mentioned earlier that that uses the users crowdsourcing to identify animals
taken from the camera traps that are located throughout the state of
Wisconsin and then that information is combined with remote sensing data to get
a better idea of population size of different species that are located
throughout the state which is then used for decision making about managing those
populations so right now this particular website is so popular that they tend to
run through all the photos pretty quickly so you’ll notice that they they
have a certain number of people that they after after they’ve interpreted the
photos than they say that photo is finished and then any other
interpretations won’t be included in the analysis but I did want to show you this
since this last season is completely finished so you see the little red
finished up there that means a bunch of people have already identified these
photos but I can still show you how this works
so as you can see in this particular photo there’s a there’s a deer down here
right in this area and the really nice thing about this website and this
platform is that you sometimes it’s hard to see the animals in the picture so
what you can do is actually look at a series of three pictures and you can see
the animal moving and this allows you to actually see the animal a little bit
better I’ve used this many many times to try to figure out
what’s in these pictures okay and I’ll just press this again so you can kind of
see the deer walking across so once you see that it’s a deer then you can come
over on the right hand side and you see this whole list of animals most of which
you’ll find in these pictures and yeah about 70% of animals and these pictures
happen to be deer because there’s a lot of deer out there in Wisconsin and then
you would click on deer and then that lead you to getting more information
about the deer whether it’s young whether it’s an adult antler ‘us lists
no antlers whether it has antlers or whether you can’t see the head at all
and then what the behavior is because the behavior then will let them know if
they’re eating or not eating or moving or whatever so this gives you additional
information about what is going on in that image and then once you in this
case it’s one adult with no antlers and then behavior is moving and then you
identify it and then it goes on to the next picture in this case it’s two more
deer so it’s a adult female and her and her baby and you can see see them moving
so this is how the website works this is done through Zooniverse Zooniverse is a
really great platform for setting up these camera traps there’s this was
based on another crowdsourcing website called snapshot Serengeti so you might
have seen some of those and then when combined with again with remote sensing
it really gives some powerful information about what the species where
the species are and the abundance of those species in the area that you’re
looking at and again if you’d like more information about this I can give you
the contact information of dr. phil townsend at the university of wisconsin
and then they can give you more information about how they were able to
process these data which is no easy task the second website I wanna show you is
called mapped mapping application for penguin populations and projected
dynamics and this gives you some really great information about the location and
abundance of penguins in the Antarctic so on the left hand side you can see a
map of the Antarctic and all these little orange dots are locations of
penguin colonies that have been reported from different kinds of sources
including the project that I told you about that use remote sensing to
identify the locations of penguins so you can click on any one of these things
and get information about the penguin colonies if you click on this and you
can get two counts in this case on the plate the place that I located is house
Adelie penguins there’s two different accounts available and then you can get
information on the abundance the date that those counts were taken and in fact
this one goes back all the way to the 1960s and the abundance the approximate
abundance number of penguins that are there in each of these counts and then
that allows you to sort of look at maybe changes over time and so forth and then
the other thing I wanted to show you is the dashboard if you go to the dashboard
then it gives you information about penguins
the different penguin species that are located in the Antarctic as you can see
it takes a little while to get the information but this inferred data was
pulled together from again from a lot of different sources by dr. Heather lynch
at Stony Brook and her colleagues and so right now you can see the total number
of penguins um at least census on the Antarctic for each of the different
species so if you hover your mouse over each of
the species you can see this is a Delhi penguin the Gentoo penguin the chinstrap
penguin and the emperor penguin and then for each of the species you can see the
different locations where there’s been counts census taken either again through
the satellite imagery more recently or through different sort of methods
researchers going out there so and so forth so this is really great
information and not to say that a lot of you are studying penguins but it’s a
really great example of how you can combine satellite imagery with actual
species counts to provide information about those species ok at this point I’m
going to go over to my powerpoint and I want it I think a lot of you probably
have not taken an our set webinar before we have and just to let you know right
now there are a lot of you online and we’re so happy that you’ve joined us
there are eight hundred and thirty six people listening to this webinar so
clearly this is a topic of interest to people and for those of you that haven’t
taken our site webinars before we offer both overviews and introduction and then
we do more advanced webinars where you can actually learn a certain skill set
like how to do land cover classification something like that so and this
particular webinar obviously was an overview webinar but I just wanted to
list some of the webinars that we’ve are offered in the past including the top
four which are sort of overview introduction webinars
remote sensing for conservation management which we did a few years
several years ago actually forest cover and change assessment for carbon
monitoring coastal and open ocean applications and then remote sensing for
scenario based eco forecasting and then we’ve also more recently done some
advanced webinars mostly using QGIS which is an open source geospatial
software including techniques for welfare detection land cover
classification accuracy assessment and change detection and then lastly this
last one that’s listed here from earth observations to earth applications that
was a workshop that we did at the World Conservation Congress a few years back
and that has some really great sort of basic level exercises that you could
follow as well I do want to remind you that although right now that our are set
webinar website is listed at the top you can get access this information the
existing information on there however for this particular webinar just to
remind you that the materials mature materials are located on a different
website that will change probably hopefully in a few weeks I also want to
remind you that if you have questions after the end of this webinar or in the
following weeks please feel free to contact me and my email address listed
here or my colleague amber McCallum at her email address if you have general
questions about our set you can contact an apprentice who’s the lead for our set
and again our offset our set website is listed here as well so as we stated
earlier this particular webinar is going to be one of a series of webinars on
conservation and biodiversity city and again this webinar was an
overview webinar one to give you examples of how remote sensing is used
in conservation applications and to to give you some basic information
especially next week about biodiversity and about geo bond which is the group on
earth observations biodiversity observation network for those of you
that don’t know about that and they will be describing some case studies under
that but in the future what we want to do is follow up with some very specific
topics and they could be advanced topic so go into actual techniques on how say
species distribution is done by you know incorporating remote sensing or
something like that so one of the questions that we have for you is of the
case studies presented here today which ones show the most promise or use are
might be useful in your work are there any of them that you thought wow I’d
like to know more about the techniques used for this particulars case study so
if you could write your questions write your answers in the question box that
would be very helpful for us and I also want to let you all know that after the
webinar is over we’ll be sending everyone a link to a questionnaire that
we’d like you to fill out if if you can and that will also ask you about
potential future topics that you might be interested in everything that we do
in our set is based on feedback that we get from people like all of you and so
it’s really important that we understand which with what is of use to you so at
the we want to just thank you all very much
for attending our webinar today and we look forward to talking with you again
on Thursday about biodiversity if you are interested in getting a certificate
remember to complete the homework by February 7th and and then you’ll have to
listen to both alum webinars live you don’t have to listen to the one this
afternoon because it’s just a repeat of what we did today so at this point we’re
going to go to questions and answers we have a little time to hopefully answer
some questions and of course if we can’t answer your questions then we’ll try to
find the answers to your questions probably later on in the week again you
can you can also email us you can email me and any of your questions that occur
to you later and you can it would it’s also really great if you can type your
name location organization and your email address if you want to connect
with your fellow land remote-sensing professionals so at this point we’re
going to I think switch presenters okay so the way this works the easiest way to
make this work is to actually have you type your questions in the question box
and then we will put them in this Google document that you can see here so you
all can see the questions and then I will try and answer them verbally and
then they’ll get typed at the same time and then we’ll make this question and
answer document available to you after probably in a day or so after the
conclusion of this particular webinar so I’ll start with the first question and
just sort of work my way down or question one for the NDVI question
I’ve always wondered if what you’re referring to would apply to cheatgrass
sits since it greens up so early compared to native species yes
that’s a great question there’s actually been a lot of studies done using remote
sensing to look at cheatgrass and what we can do is find some of those papers
for you and give you information about where to locate that information but
you’re right a key component to looking at cheatgrass is when it greens up
because it tends to green up a little bit at a different time than some of the
other grasses or shrubs around it so it makes it a little bit easier to use a
sort of a time series to identify where the cheatgrass is question to how
authentic is habitat suitability model for predicting the potential area of
occurrence of any threatened plant species that is a big question and I
can’t answer that question in this particular webinar series because every
model is different for one thing every study is different so it a lot of it
depends on the ground information that you have I think one of the things that
we are most likely to do in the future is have a webinar just on habitat
suitability modeling and remote sensing and what we’ll do is we’ll bring in some
of the scientists that are working specifically in this area and you’ll
hear more about some of those projects next week in the bar next week on
Thursday in the biodiversity session but right now that’s a very that would be a
very tough question for me to answer in this very short webinar but we’ll get
you more information on that so there’s a question about slide 31 I’m what does
that mean for interpretation I’ll have to go back and look at slide 31 I don’t
have it up right now I’ll get back to you on that particular question question
4 how do you monitor guano as temperature anomalies monitoring of
bacterial activity gases or something else that’s another great question so in
the case of penguins the those particular penguins
Adelie penguins and other pet Penguins nest on the rocks
in the Antarctic they don’t nest on the snow and so the contrast between the
guano and the rocks because there are so many penguins in a colony is very
apparent from the satellite imagery you can actually see the guano stains on the
rocks from the satellite imagery and that’s how they are able to detect guano
now one of the things that they’re trying to do in addition to just
detecting the guano itself is look at the spectral response of guano so one of
the scientists on that particular project is focusing on getting spectral
information from the guano and that will actually give them information about the
food that the Adelie penguins are eating whether they’re eating krill or other
things in the ocean and give them some idea about the diet of the penguin and
how that may be changing over time so question five do you have more
information about removing removing false positives for nigh raps Vere’s
data I don’t have the specific information about how they’re the
process for removing false positives but we can get to information on that if you
go to the veers active fire website there’s quite a bit of information about
how they remove the false positives and if that doesn’t provide you with enough
information we can get you in contact with the people that actually do that
processing so please contact us afterwards about that oh and thank you
somebody’s posting the actual website on the Q&A document that’s awesome question
six what algorithm or bands does the fire detection tool use so the fire the
fire detail I think you’re asking about which about the satellite imagery so
both Viers and modis have a thermal band and so it can detect heat and that’s
emitted from the earth and it can also penetrate cloud cover and smoke and so
forth so it’s a particular it’s a longer wavelength it’s it’s longer than the
near-infrared and both of those sensors use that band out of curiosity do they
send an email notification when there is more data to analyze so I’m not sure
exactly what this question is referring to I see Oh Ford snapshot Wisconsin okay
yes so if you sign up if you go into Zooniverse which in order to this is I
apologize this is one thing I didn’t mention when you go onto Zooniverse and
you want to use snapshot Wisconsin if you want to identify a lot of the photos
you actually have to sign into an account in Zooniverse for snapshot
Wisconsin and it’s free and then you provide your email address and then when
there’s more data available when seasons say the next season which i think is
season 12 or 13 when they have photos available for that season they’ll
contact you via email so the question is how does the team avoid double counting
individuals if the same individuals is captured on two different nights are
there ways to avoid double counting so I assume this is for snapshot Wisconsin
again I’ll have to ask the team about that maybe what we can do is take your
question and I can contact Phil Townsend and ask them how they do that but I
think that they probably take that into account it’s a really good question now
that I sort of think about it I think they take that into account when they do
the processing and they know you know they look at the different days and
maybe they only take one day for specific area or or something like that
but it’s a really good question I’ll try to find out the answer for that question
9 how do they ensure they are not overestimating populations in the areas
that have cameras so that this question is very much related to the question
for this are the cameras located uniformly across some kind of grid
system so in this case the cameras in Wisconsin have been rolling out over a
period of years and there’s a challenge to putting out cameras right because a
lot of it needs to go on private land and in order to put it on private land
you need permission from the owners and in this case over time the private land
of owners have been very supportive of getting the camera trap a getting the
cameras out so but because of those restrictions they aren’t putting out
they aren’t being put out on a regular grid and they haven’t been uniformly
throughout the state either and so when they do the occupancy modeling and
population estimates they have to take all of that into account but what
they’re figuring what they’re deciding is that even if there is a chance for
over estimation or that the population estimates aren’t exactly uniform they’re
still getting better information than they did before they use this approach ten using sea surface temperature data
to forecast the fire cast yes in fire cast is it because it is affected by the
great conveyor belt that influences the weather climate that’s exactly right and
again I can get you more information from Karen Taylor at Conservation
International about the process used and why they’re using sea surface
temperature but yes it has to do about how weather influences the sea surface
temperature and vice versa and then how that impacts impacts the weather on the
land question eleven there are so many data sets products available but there
doesn’t seem to be any single portal per yeah I’m going to finish reading this
question but I know where this is going on any single portal for searching for
what’s available to support specific research or for obtaining the
information instead we have to use multiple portals is there any plan for
integration or provision of a single entry portal that is a fantastic
question and it seems to be one that many many many people are asking out of
frustration for trying to find information that you want in one spot
and you’re absolutely right there is no one place you can go to find everything
that you need and there’s lots of reasons for that and you’ll see next
week when we do our next week Thursday when we do our session on biodiversity
there are many biodiversity portals and one of the things that geo bond is
trying to do the biodiversity observation network is pull all of that
information to be a network of biodiversity portal so you can go to one
spot for biodiversity which will then lead you to other other
portals and but you know that’s it that’s biodiversity it isn’t all of
these other things that you’re talking about and I’m not sure if there’s ever
going to be one spot where you can find everything unfortunately but I know it’s
an issue and I wish we could do something about it too we have the same
problem when we try to find data believe it or not so question twelve again in
camera trapping how is abundance calculated I will have to refer you to
the people that have actually calculated the abundance that abundance is and
occupancy are not easy to calculate for that particular project but they do have
some papers out that I can refer you to and then if you want more specific
information I will I will give you the contact information for that scientists
that work on that project question 13 this is an interesting question is it
correctly understood that remote sensing should not stand alone so I assume what
you mean by that question is that you need to use ground information or other
information along with remote sensing to figure out whatever question you’re
asking and in my opinion the answer is yes you need other information and
addition to the remote sensing information to really figure out what’s
going on I have taught introduction to remote sensing for a long time and I
always tell my students that sitting at your computer and processing satellite
imagery only gives you part of the answer you really need to get background
information and tie what you’re seeing in the information
in the imagery to what is going on in the ground to get the full picture so
there’s a question can we use VII are for urban land cover assessment so I
assume that maybe veers yes for urban land cover assessment so veers is fairly
coarse spatial resolution I think for usually for urban land cover assessment
you need a higher spatial resolution at the very minimum you know Landsat at 30
meters you might be able to get some kind of urban land cover assessment but
typically you need even higher spatial resolution depending on what your
objectives are for your project so I know there are a lot more questions but
we’re we’re at our time limit now at one hour so what we’ll do with the rest of
the questions as will actually answer to them offline and then post the question
and answer document on our either on our website or on the site on the FTP link
that we gave you earlier and we might need to bring up that again or post it
in the chat box oh there we go Brock just posted it so we’ll get the Q&A doc
out there and then you can take a look at that at the end and we’ll do it all
so for next week’s next week’s Thursday’s biodiversity session as well
so we want to thank all of you for joining us we had a huge turnout today
which again signifies the importance of this topic and the importance of using
remote sensing for servation in biodiversity so we welcome
your feedback we will base future trainings on your feedback and I hope
that we’ve been able to give you some useful information today so thanks again
and we look forward to talking with you again on Thursday about biodiversity
thanks everyone

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