SOMETHING HAS DESTROYED THE EARTH What is going to happen next

the upcoming total solar eclipse that
will happen on August 17th 2017 but first I would like to take a quick
second to thank all of our subscribers both old and new the channel has grown
quite a bit lately and I am so happy to see so many new additions to our
community we couldn’t have done it without our older subscribers who have
supported us with their views comments likes and shares I look forward to the
conversations we will have as a new and larger community so thank you very much
now let’s take a look at the solar eclipse which many are saying is the
beginning of the end the eclipse will come before the great alignment which
occurs on September 23rd of this year this is when we will see the alignment
spoken about in Revelation 12:1 revelation 12:1 reads and a great sign
appeared in the heavens a woman clothed in the Sun with the moon under her feet
and a crown of twelve stars on her head this is the alignment of Virgo which
will be directly above the moon according to revelations this is when
the beginning of the end is to happen and it describes those times as being
like the birth pangs of a woman in labor so let’s take a little bit deeper look
at this Eclipse on August 21st 2017 a total solar eclipse will darken the
American skies starting in Oregon and moving across the country’s midsection
to South Carolina the shadow will be close to 70 miles wide and divides the
country in half does this pretend evil for the nation’s
according to Scripture absolutely in Revelation sixth which happens just
prior to the day of the Lord the Bible speaks about the Sun turning as black as
sackcloth when the moon passes between the Earth and the Sun you have a solar
eclipse which can occur totally or partly and obscures the image of the Sun
for an earth-based viewer the last time that this happened where the path of
totality lies completely within the United States was in 1776 the date of
the founding of our republic the starting point of the great Eclipse is
on the waterfront at government Point Oregon at 10:15 a.m. Pacific Daylight
Time the centerline’s last contact with the continental United States occurs at
the Atlantic oceans edge just southeast of Key Bay South Carolina in the mean
time the Eclipse impacts a total of 10 states in the Bible 10 represents order
and completeness this goes back in history to the 10 generations that began
with Adam and ended with Noah that generation had a pretty abrupt end
you might recall the great flood this great Eclipse also is a time marker –
the great sign of Virgo which will be just 33 days away from the August 17th
date of the Eclipse as seen from the Midwest the planet Venus will also be a
negative 33 degrees west northwest of the Sun 2017 may well be the culmination
and convergence of diverse prophecies including the appearance of Planet X
Paul tells us in first Thessalonians that the day of the Lord will come as a
thief in the night people will be talking about peace and safety but Paul
makes reference to this in the same chapter and says that it would be like
labor pains upon a pregnant woman this definitely points to the September 23rd
2017 great sign or great alignment this will represent
the birth of Jupiter the King planet from the womb of forego all of this will
be company by labor pains which could be thought of as seismic
activity or volcanic activity here on earth this could even represent social
upheaval and change ominously Revelation 12 is the last reference in the entire
Bible to this event this is a period of darkness
what might cause this to happen right now there was a huge reawakening of
volcanoes across the world in Italy in the Bay of Naples right near Pompeii
which is the site of the 79 AD eruption of Mount Vesuvius there is a
supervolcano known as can’t be free which if it erupted ‘add could kill
millions in fact it is so large it could have a global catastrophic impact
scientists are in the process of drilling down two miles deep into the
crust of the earth of the site to measure the magma levels beneath despite
opposition from other scientists who believe that this is suicidal and could
cause the super volcano to erupt are all of these facts which are in simultaneous
motion just mere chance occurrences let’s see what Albert Einstein has to
say about chance but how about a lost continent could theorist eruption be
responsible for something greater perhaps the seeking of a legendary
island Empire known as Atlantis the eruption of Thera in the Greek
islands around 1600 BC destroyed the nearby city of Akrotiri but that’s not
all far worse it impacted civilization and history scholars believe the
theories eruption changed the whole course of Western civilization it
precipitated the downfall of a people known as the Minoans their seat of power
lay 75 miles away from fira on an island known as crete crete is a very fertile land very
productive and affluence characterizes it throughout its history the Minoans
were the contemporaries of the mighty Egyptians with a language of their own
and a culture revered by others they were peace-loving traders who placed
strong emphasis on Commerce and not war it was a commercial empire it didn’t
have any defensive walls or anything to protect himself because they had the
ships for that the boats for that and so they will known all around the entire
eastern Mediterranean as traders highly cultured and civilized the
Minoans held much promise as a people it was their culture that provided the seed
of Greek civilization a thousand years later they had an advanced state of
bureaucracy and organization today the only things that remain are the palaces
and ruins were tourists flock each summer the fall of the Minoan
civilization could be traced back to a single natural disaster the eruption of
Thera this is corrosives the major palace the major settlement
for the Minoans on crete what did they see one morning when they woke up what
they saw on the horizon there was a volcano erupting it was erupting with
the largest blasts we know of in human antiquity in this part of the world they
saw a gray sky a black sky they saw lightning they saw darkening clouds
enveloping them and ash falling on the ground all around them and earthquakes
constant earthquakes for them the world looked like it attended ash from the
eruption travelled from fira to crete in less than half an hour
the Minoans in crete had no idea what was in store for them imagine your own
creature a man on life was going on very nicely suddenly north of them on the
horizon something blows up and he know it’s an island
anybody have cousins that lived there something and it’s just in four days
just just everything breaks loose there’s fire in the sky and there’s
tsunamis smashing into their coastline and there’s ash falling out of the sky
and probably even torrential rains that came along with the latter part of the
eruption and earthquakes that effect on them must have been tremendous if
climate change accompanied this eruption then that climate change influenced
their agriculture for a while the Fatima brought a lot of promise and who must is
a material that floats very easily and have covered apparently most of the
eastern Mediterranean for years making rowing or sailing of course impossible
so this commercial empire lost its major part of existence earthquakes from the eruption triggered
fires setting ablaze the Minoan palaces but beyond physical devastation there is
a greater effect the self-confidence of a people this marked the start of a
50-year decline of the Minoans did the volcanic eruption on Santorini directly
destroy the Minoan culture the answers simply no if however we ask a more
subtle question did it contribute to the decline did it undermine Minoan
power the answer is almost certainly yes the chances are that anybody faced with
that sort of devastation would ask what is going on are the gods displeased and
such questioning such undermining perhaps of the social fabric could have
led to all sorts of expressions within Minoan culture with this breakdown of social order the
Minoan civilization ultimately suffered a blow only remnants of their glory are
left behind it’s interesting to speculate what civilization would have
been like if the Minoans had not declined so perhaps if the Santorini
eruption had not happened the history of Greece as we know it now would have been
very different what caused ferry’s eruption to be so far-reaching for
answers we have to go deep inside the volcano athira
sits on a string of volcanic islands straddling four plates this convergence
of plates creates the chain of volcanic islands and makes theories eruption
highly potent magma is formed when the African plate gets pushed beneath the
Eurasian the result is a gas rich and thick magma that erupts explosively today in Santorini scientists are still
trying to understand the nature of thera’s eruption these layers of rocks
and mineral deposits are the only clues left behind by history geo archaeologist
Floyd McCoy has dedicated more than 20 years of his life to studying the impact
of theory he believes the explosion was so loud it
could be heard throughout southern Europe northern Africa and the Middle
East more importantly the blast completely changed the shape of the land
thousands of years before the Minoan eruption santorini was believed to have
joined as one possibly shaped like this after several
eruptions that single island was blasted apart into smaller ones at the time of
the Minoans a volcano named theorist sat in the centre of these islands when it
erupted around 1600 BC it again changed the shape of the islands one of the effects of volcanism is that
the scenery constantly changes through time with every eruption it changes it
gets different it looks different when fira erupted it unleashed a powerful
force into the sea scientists believed it caused giant waves or tsunamis that
battered the Aegean coast this eruption produced all kinds of physical effects
in this area dozens of tsunami produced and then what
happens is that the center of the volcano I’ve just been blasted collapses
to produce today’s caldera and just think of that the lay just suddenly
falls in the oceans there the ocean pours in pours out tsunamis again the
impact is got to be huge tremendous today all that remains of the volcano is
an island in the center of santorini called nia Kamini with the birth of this
new island the volcano is slowly rebuilding itself over the next 20
thousand years this island is going to get larger and larger and then possibly
explode again that’s the history of this volcano repeated explosions about every
20,000 years the Minoan eruption that happened circa
1600 BC was enormous legends have been linked to this eruption
they’ve suggested that another Island Empire was also devastated by theorists
powerful blasts a mythical continent described by the Greek philosopher Plato
known as Atlantis according to this legend their whole island was destroyed
and it was submerged in one day and one night
did plato was he really passing on something that was real that’s it that’s
just hard to know did a landscape disappeared an island disappearing whether or not this theory can hold the
answer lies deep beneath the sea for the Aegean is an expanse filled with
history’s little riddles indeed myth and science seem to be
strange bedfellows here in fira with few written records as their guide scholars
often have no choice but to use legends as launching pads to their study when volcanologists are trying to
reconstruct an ancient eruption you use everything you can all the data you can
and certainly there’s a lot of collaboration between volcanologists and
archeologists and historians and in santorini for example that has been a
great collaboration because the archaeologists can tell the things
helped us date the eruption while the scientists that study the effects of the
eruption and the sequence of events can say something else so you end up tying
it all together and you even look at Legends and stories such as Atlantis
because perhaps they were inspired by this eruption five hundred miles away
from fira the majestic Pyramids of Giza stood as a witness to this powerful
eruption the Cataclysm unleashed in thira is believed to have reached here
volcanic deposits from the blast have been found in the Nile Delta this has prompted some scholars to
suggest that stories in the Bible may be linked to thera’s eruption in the book
of Exodus signs of the plagues include thunder and hail and total darkness
phenomena that could have been volcanic in origin and another plague mentioned
in the Bible the waters of the Nile turning into blood the Nile water
turning into blood and you ask yourself how was that ever possible I mean why
could they describe something like that what must have happened of course is
quite easy to understand because huge amounts of dust reddish dust because the
upper layer that you have in Santorini is a pinkish reddish color a lot of
death material actually wiped out over the area of Egypt and was then brought
worse denial by very heavy rains which you are also falling at a time that you
had all this dust in the atmosphere and so that means that the color of the Nile
changed somewhat from the typical sort of yellowish brownish towards a more
reddish tint even today scientists and historians are trying to piece together
the complete story of thera’s eruption much of its secret lies beneath the sea
in ash deposits and perhaps sunken continents and lost cities but there is another volcano whose tail
is finely preserved this was the first time in history that
an eruption was recorded in great detail by one man his is now the name
scientists associate with the most explosive of all eruptions even in the
middle of what must have been chaos she described the eruptions and the events
of the eruption in a very detailed and very scientific way can a volcano be so
explosive that it’s legacy has felt more than a thousand years later the eruption
of Thera a powerful volcano circa 1600 BC changed history and geography almost 2000 years later another volcanic
eruption rocked the civilised world this was an eruption famous in history
because of an eyewitness account the first time in history that the stages of
an eruption had been detailed rising 1,300 meters in solitary splendor
above the bay of naples it is the only active volcano on continental Europe in
August 79 AD Vesuvius erupted burying the surrounding Roman cities with ash
and rocks that Bay it must have been hell they turned in tonight because of
eruption clouds cutting out the Sun there would have been a tremendous smell
of sulfur and the people must have been terrified and not knowing what to do
over a period of 30 hours the people who lived in cities surrounding Vesuvius
watched in awe of this eruption the 79 AD eruption of Mount Vesuvius
began on August 24th with an initial eruption of about an inch of ash a
couple of centimeters that was followed by the eruption of pumice and that is
gas charged volcanic glass that’s still extremely hot and basically it’s gas
charged magma this puffed up much like puffed wheat represents a little kernel
of wheat this stuff is very buoyant was thrust high in the atmosphere and
started raining down this eruption was equal to 500 times that of the atomic
bomb in Hiroshima that is the consequence of a high concentration of
gases dissolved in the magma interestingly the Magma’s at vesuvius
have erupted very gas riched materials over the last 25 thousand years it’s the
presence of these gases that expand and provide the driving energy just much
like steam and the turbine is used to provide electrical energy the gas
expanding in Magma’s erupts very catastrophic Li
a cloud of ash and pumice known as pyroclastic ected into the air forming a
tall column this pyro class stayed in the atmosphere
but not for long the cloud of material rises up above the volcano but it
sometimes become so dense that parts of the cloud collapse the flow reached the
city of Pompeii first traveling at speeds of up to 200 miles per hour and
at temperatures of between 2 to 800 degrees in addition to the high
temperatures and the high energy of impact of the flow is the fact that
really the particles in it or heated volcanic rock but largely volcanic glass
so this is minut particles of fine-grained hot gas charged glass that
when breathed would literally choke someone being clogged in their windpipe everything that stood in its way was
destroyed herculaneum soon followed
both cities buried under the pyroclastic flow silenced for the next eighteen
hundred years scientists know so much of what happened by studying the layers of
rock each grain of dust is able to tell Mother Nature’s story in detail we are
looking at the deposits of the 1879 eruption of Vesuvius it is a very
interesting to look at these rocks because looking at the texture and the
composition of these deposits it is possible to understand which kind of
phenomena occurred during the eruption and which kind of damages they caused on
the buildings inside the town lava or convey the first part of the deposits
composed of these fragments very light fragments of stone means that during the
first phases of the eruptions these stones fell down like in like a snow day
cold older the city of Pompeii the eruption that occurred that fateful day
in August of 79 AD took many Romans by surprise most of them never knew that
something so beautiful could be so deadly a Romans didn’t know that
Vesuvius was a volcano because it was a very quiet Mountain for about seven
centres and these lands were very quiet places
all the flank of the volcano were cultivated with grapes it was a very
nice and green place at the time of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD the
pantheon of Roman gods held sway in the empire natural calamities were explained
not by science but by divine acts the volcano is thought to be the home of
Vulcan the blacksmith of the Roman god the ancient Romans knew about some
volcanoes they thought that the god Vulcan was there at his Forge and he
forged Jupiter’s or Zeus Thunderbolt and when he banned
on his anvil that’s when the explosions happen inside his world the volcano is
the entrance to the underworld this is akin to Hell for the ancient Romans if you look for instance at dress
someday eruptions you see this enormous cloud going up and swirling up into the
atmosphere and sometimes even higher into the stratosphere then it’s very
easy to see giants in their faces and limbs and you know bodies and so on and
it is as if they are swirling around each other and fighting with each other
and a lot of times that sort of image came through in the mythology and says
look yes these were giants have came from under the earth they are fighting
with each other once they were freed and came towards the service but not all
Romans though were guided by mythology and superstition many Romans especially
educated ones had scientific pursuits a written account of the eruption of
Vesuvius by one young Roman from the nearby town of Misenum gave birth to the
science of Volcanology Gaius Plinius secundus or Pliny the Younger
had observed the eruption from a distance but he was able to describe the
offense very very clearly although a number of years afterwards after he had
thought about it very carefully and actually took a different aspects of
them and linked them together Pliny the Younger was a real scientist even in the
middle of what must have been chaos he described the eruptions and the events
of the eruption in a very detailed and very scientific way and that has really
helped us reconstruct what happened on that day
this became one of the first eyewitness accounts of a volcanic eruption in
history a cloud was forming its appearance and shape would be best
expressed as being that of an umbrella pine since stretch upward like an
extremely tall trunk it then spread out like branches I think it first rose up
originating from a stream of air which then abated so it gave way to its own
way spreading out slowly sometimes it was white sometimes dirty and blotchy
because of the soil or ash that it carried because of the records of plenty
today we have a better understanding of how volcanoes behave in the laboratory
of the American Museum of Natural History
volcanologist Jim Webster builds upon this scientific observation that started
with plenty with just a splinter of a rock taken from Vesuvius he’s able to
piece together clues of the historical eruption and with that the explosive
nature of the volcano is revealed bit by bit
our scientific understanding of volcanoes and a volcanism the process of
volcanic eruption in the surface of the earth is constantly changing it’s
largely a function of having the opportunity to observe active eruptions
on the grounds of Vesuvius today volcanologists like Sandro De Vita are
studying its dynamics and structure the question that confounds scientists what
causes one volcanic eruption to be more explosive than others to
understand this there’s a need to go miles deep inside the volcano Vesuvius
sits atop two continental plates that collide with each other the African
plate and Eurasian Plate during these collision together with the formation of
the of the mountain chain there was a rotation of the Italian peninsula an
anti-clockwise rotation of the peninsula net stretch the crust generating many
fractures these fractures or cracks underneath the earth provide pathways
for magma movement this is where the magma builds itself up to a highly
explosive state there are number of factors that influence the extent of
explosivity the amount of energy visible one of the primary characters is just
simply the bulk chemistry of the magma or molten rock itself and viscosity can
be described as the ability of a liquid to flow so we all know for example the
analogy of molasses and winter is very thick it’s viscous whereas when it’s
warm it’s more runny so it’s less viscous so with regard to magma is the
issue is a more viscous magma is less likely to expand as fat as bubbles form
inside of it so there’s more potential energy built up
that was what happened in Vesuvius in AD 79 when gases cannot escape the pressure
intensifies within the magma chamber over time this build-up can no longer be
contained and a powerful explosion occurs when the tall column of volcanic ash and
rocks collapsed it spelled doom for the people of the two cities of Pompeii and
Herculaneum yet ironically what the volcano varied
in history it also kept for posterity how did the history of Vesuvius continue
to impact lives thousands of years later Vesuvius erupted in 79 AD throwing a
tall column of searing ash rocks and gases high into the atmosphere
this tall column didn’t stay above for long though
when this collapsed it surged down the sides of the volcano burying the cities
of Pompeii and Herculaneum of the 20,000 or so inhabitants of Pompeii at that
time approximately 2,000 people and forcing lost their lives most of the people didn’t stay there and
they were not caught by surprise because the earthquake happened first around ten
percent of the people it is estimated that stayed in Pompeii and were killed
and they were killed by pyroclastic flows then happened in the early hours
of the morning today in pompeii and herculaneum
tourists walked through the sights remembering the day basu vs erupted for
generation as the world seemed to have forgotten about the 79 AD eruption when pompeii and herculaneum were
unearthed in the 19th century lost art and architecture were presented to the
world this assured a new movement known as neoclassicism buildings around the
world were inspired by the remnants of the lost cities they must his full
resurgence actually of saying let’s copy it both in the literary world as in the
artistic world there was this you could almost go up with the colors an upheaval
but Renaissance is a better word for it Vesuvius
still remains an active volcano Pompeii and Herculaneum are long gone but Naples
is a bustling vibrant city since 79 AD the volcano has erupted 50 times most
were minor eruptions its last was in 1944 26 people died as a result of that
eruption the flowing lava destroyed nearby towns as well as an American
military base perhaps for them the proximity of death
exalts life surrounding lands are fertile and bountiful Vesuvius provides
an easy intimacy between the destructive and the creative the volcano has come to
embody something more than just a natural phenomenon it shapes the culture
and psychology of the people who live on its flanks here in Naples this is
evident more than two million people today live in Naples and the towns
surrounding Vesuvius in the backs of their minds they know this active
volcano will erupt again it’s considered one of the most dangerous volcanoes in
the world because you have a large number of people in Naples for example
and all the suburbs of Naples that run around the volcano and you could imagine
the roadblocks and people trying to get away from the volcano it would be a very
very dangerous situation which hundreds of thousands of people could be killed
but they have learned to cope with this permanent threat of living in its shadow for years scientists have been
campaigning to restrict urbanization around Vesuvius but their words have
fallen on deaf ears Neapolitans believe that their patron saint san gennaro will
protect them from the series’s next eruption an appellee in Sierra Nevada program
post along with various other problems as always at the volcano Vesuvius people
always pray for the intercession Sanjana in fact on the east door of the old city
there is a stench of San Gennaro with the hand like this extended toward is
obvious and this is the exact representation until now same to the
work and stop don’t go to the city tortured and beheaded the sink died a
martyr in 305 ad today his remains are interred in a crypt in the cathedral
drops of his blood had been preserved in well-kept files three times a year
a ceremony is held in the city’s Cathedral with the blood of San Gennaro
being brought out the people think that when the blood doesn’t meth they send me
to give some kind of sign with his seniority this sense of tradition has
kept many of them rebuilding their homes each time vesuvius strikes it is hard to
comprehend the tenacity of the people who live at the foot of volcanoes why
would people risk life and property to live on the flanks of volcanoes would it
be easier to live far away from centers of calamities that though may not always
be the solution a volcanoes reach may be closer than we realize even if we live
thousands of miles away a volcanic eruption can potentially have worldwide
reach that can also influence climate worldwide and in many cases several
years after the event can an erupting volcano half a world away caused
devastation to lives on the other side of the globe one out of every ten people in the world
today live in areas flanked by active volcanoes for them life goes on
even as the shadow of destruction hovers in their midst
many of them live around the Pacific Rim an area of high volcanic activity known
as the Ring of Fire the collision of the Earth’s major plates creates these
active volcanoes from Navidad in Chile to the Fuego mountains in Central
America to Mount st. Helens in the Cascades of America’s Northwest to the
island arcs of the Aleutian and Siberia to Japan with its venerated Mount Fuji
and a ferocious Mount Sakurajima to Indonesia where Krakatoa awaits with
holy bromo and Mount Tambora along the Pacific Basin much of the Pacific Ocean
crust is being thrust beneath surrounding continental crust and in
those zones there is constant volcanism taking place it probably represents 15
to 20 percent of the volcanism taking place on our planet but a volcano’s
wrath isn’t just limited to those who choose to gamble with their fates the
impact of a powerful volcanic eruption can reach thousands of miles away a volcanic eruption can potentially have
worldwide reach and the reason being is particularly explosive eruptions can
inject ash and gases directly up to the stratosphere or up to 17 kilometers or
more in height and this material can spread globally and it can also
influence climate worldwide and in many cases several years after the event an
eruption in Indonesia half a world away may in fact affect lives in America and
Europe history has already shown this before the Indonesian archipelago is a sea of
islands home to the largest number of active volcanoes Indonesia is really a chain of volcanoes
that essentially result from the fact that we’re recycling some averts older
oceanic crust it’s part of what makes Indonesia prone to volcanic hazards in
that manifestation of this subduction or recycling process on the island of sumbawa locals call
Mount Tambora the great one in 1815 Tambora erupted in a series of blasts 150 cubic kilometers of a shot to the
sky darkness lasted for three continuous days from its initial height of 13,000 feet
Tambora was reduced to only 9,000 feet by the end of the erection it was
estimated that over 10,000 people were directly killed from the blast another
80,000 more lives were lost from famine and diseases numerous pyroclastic flows
hit the surrounding flanks of the mountain
these came cascading down the flanks of the volcano in a 360-degree pattern
about the vent and essentially inundated all of the island of sumbawa the 1815
eruption is also notorious for the fact that large amounts of so2 gas were
discharged directly to the stratosphere though it combines with water to form a
compound called h2 so4 and these fine aerosol particles have a long residence
time in the upper portion of our atmosphere and it can affect climate
where we live climates around the globe was severely
altered temperatures worldwide were lowered causing a catastrophic impact on
climates throughout Europe the summer of 1816 was cold and wet in North America
it was known as the year without a summer one of the most fascinating
things of course of that’s volcano in 1815 is that its effects were still felt
for instance in Europe and North America Francis in Connecticut and New Haven we
had actually a fireman called out because the people saw his big huge red
glows in the horizon that didn’t seem to go away and they said oh the forest is
all burning well that what glowing sort of clouds of course a direct reflection
of the amount of dust the pollution that was in the atmosphere but more important
in 1816 they was Frost in Connecticut in July and in August severe frost and that
of course means that that dust that we heard in the atmosphere and all the
acidic droplets that floated around there caused an enormous reflection of
sunlight of some warmth and temperatures dropped very significantly
I think climate change and the effect it has on agriculture specifically and
therefore on famine and therefore on epidemics and so on that is probably
much more important and much more significant than the ashes that fell in
the general region itself Tambora showed that volcanic eruptions
could have a reach far beyond local shores but even then the full extent is
not known few details of Tom Boras eruption were left behind by historical
records Tambora left behind few clues but 875 miles across the Indonesian
islands was Krakatoa this volcano had more to share Krakatoa sat between the
two major islands of Indonesia Sumatra and Java when it erupted in August 1883
its blast could be heard in Australia 2,000 miles away shockwaves from the
blast circled the world reaching the Americas 20 hours after the eruption
this short wave that was made by Krakatoa went around the world the two
waves met each other over Brazil collided went back collided went back
collided undoubtedly some of these detonations were produced when
pyroclastic flows were coming down the flanks of the volcano entering the sea
and generating what we refer to as hydro volcanic explosions you can think of the
magma as a fuel and the water as a coolant and when you have fuel coolant
interaction we can have some very catastrophic explosive activity taking
place and some of these explosions obviously reverberate about our planet
several times up to seven times dust from Krakatoa fell as far as 1,500 miles
away and remained in the Earth’s atmosphere for two weeks sunlight
filtering through the dust particles created spectacular optical effects over
70% of the Earth’s surface it’s a sort of an a pattern that’s caused by all
this pollution sometimes you get blue sometimes you get orange and red and so
on you get a color that’s unusual today we know much about the global
impact of Krakatoa’s eruptions scientific observations were well
documented by geologists around the world at the time the Telegraph was an
invention that mankind used to communicate globally and it’s one of the
first eruptions where we can actually have eyewitnesses recording their
accounts of the activity being relayed to people throughout the world
Krakatoa happened at a very fortuitous time in a history of geology
they were geologists in Indonesia at that time who could observe the effects
in the after effects of that eruption on a world map the volcanoes of Indonesia
may seem small hardly a dot in the Earth’s vastness
but their might is terrifying their reach unimaginable but even worse is
they’re unpredictable nature today science is trying to anticipate these
volcanoes can the inscrutable volcano be second guessed for decades scientists have been trying
to nail down patterns in volcanic behavior when would each volcano erupt
what would the magnitude be but answering such questions hasn’t been
easy volcanoes after all unpredictable and Volcanology we say the past is the
key to the future because volcanoes do in the future will do in the future what
they have done in the past and so if we study those volcanoes histories and
study them accurately and get the timing right then we can make I think very good
prediction but again where they’re unpredictable is in that time window
where you would like to be able to sit next Thursday at 3 o’clock there’s going
to be an eruption of magnitudes say the ei5 a big eruption at this particular
volcano that would allow us then to very precisely say when and where move people
away let the volcano erupt and do its thing then people can move back in at
present what we’re faced with is the dilemma of uncertainty volcanologist John Pallister works with
the US Geological Survey at the Cascades Volcano Observatory near Mount st.
Helens today on the slopes of the volcano Pallister collects lava rocks
that would help shed much light on st. Helens behavior we’re here in the 1980
debris Avalanche deposit for Mount st. Helens and we’re looking at some of the
rocks from that debris Avalanche to try to piece together the puzzle of where
they came from up on the volcano in fact what we’ve got here is a piece of lava
that was erupted about 4,000 years ago at mount st. Helens in fact it comes
from that light patch up on the crater wall we call it the old Pine Creek dome
so what we’re seeing are big masses of the volcano which slid down in this
trend this horrendous torrent of rock that came down in 1980 the largest
landslide in recorded history so it is really very much like a jigsaw puzzle
what we do is we go through and we map the distribution we show where they are
on a map that makes a geologic map then from that map we reconstruct where they
were on the volcano today volcanologists at the st. Helens
volcano observatory are keeping a close eye on any form of seismic activity on
their shoulders rest the responsibility of predicting the next eruption of Mount
st. Helens and to avoid repeating the scale of the last disaster monk st.
Helens prior to its eruption in 1980 was a picture of beauty it is one of 15
volcanoes in the Cascade Range which starts with Mount Garibaldi in British
Columbia and extends to Lassen Peak the subduction of a small plate named Juan
de Fuca under the North American plate creates this chain of volcanoes in May 1980 mount st. Helens erupted
after 123 years of inactivity a series of earthquakes began in
mid-march followed by eruptions of steam and volcanic ash volcanologist snoo that
it was just a matter of time that a blast would occur but they couldn’t know
how clearly Mount st. Helens was restless again and that information was
put out to the public the question became what was the outcome going to be
and in 1980 that was a tough question we did a lot of work trying to understand
what the volcano was doing by early April you could look up at the volcano
and see a bulge forming in the volcano magma had managed to come from some
great depth many miles below the earth’s surface
question is what’s going to happen well the only guide you have is to look at
what st. Helens has done in the past historically st. Helens had erupted from
the top but this time something was different a bulge was growing steadily
on its north flank we recognize that with the Bulge growing
on the North flank it was possible that that North flank would become unstable
and would slide away and if it did you would have a large landslide and we
might even uncap the magma that had been rising up into the volcano and we talked
we talked about that we’ve thought about it and we said well that’s a possible
outcome is there any evidence st. helens has ever done that before and the answer
was no but just to be sure an observation post was established by the
usgs on a ridge just six miles northwest of the volcano to monitor this bulge
scientists then thought it was safe enough of a distance should there be an
eruption but the volcano had other plans at 8:32 the North flank became unstable
and slid away it made the largest landslide debris Avalanche ever observed
in historic time as most of you already know we had a major eruption occurring
at 8:32 approximately this morning on Mount st. Helens it does appear that the
Northwest flank of the mountain seems to be gone
when it did it decapitated the magma that had been rising up into the volcano
forming the Bulge and that sudden release of the weight of the Bulge
caused it to explode it exploded off to the north within minutes a pyroclastic
flow of Ash lava and rocks hugged the slopes of st. Helens and sped through
them much of st. helens wildlife was wiped
out 200 square miles destroyed the size equivalent to the city of Chicago how predictable was mount st. Helens in
1980 well very clearly it gave us two months of warning that something was up
but we were unable to predict precisely that on May 18 the outcome was going to
be a huge avalanche a directed blast so the outcome there was not perfect but we
learned a tremendous amount and we were able to let folks know that st. Helens
was up to something that hit that had not occurred for more than a hundred
years learning about the past is key in studying volcanoes scientists try to
predict the future by uncovering past behavior of a volcano no two volcanoes
are exactly alike so in order to understand the volcano you really need
to study their particular volcano what it’s done in the past what is it likely
to do in the future and we’re still learning a lot about
volcanoes and volcanic eruptions we are still learning a lot about how to tell
if a volcano is going to erupt and it’s very hard to predict
the unpredictable nature of st. Helens is why some have pointed to the risk
another volcano in the Cascades poses just 50 miles north of Mount st. Helens
is Mount Rainier at a glance it’s icy caps seem a perfect backdrop for picture
taking but make no mistake Rainier is a volcano biding its time to wreak havoc
Renea is considered the most hazardous volcano in the United States and why is
that it’s not only because it’s an explosive volcano like son Helens like
the volcanoes in the Cascades but also because it has glaciers at the top and
that can lead to something else the problem with Ranier is that the ash
the volcanic fine material that is erupted from these explosive eruptions
mixes with water in the rivers and if there are glaciers on the volcano the
group ice with ice melts and so you get mud flows very rapid flows of mud and
water coming down the valleys that surrounded these mud flows are called lahars
scientists say this mixture is akin to wet cement that can outrun anyone
burying whole cities in mud this was what happened to the island of
Montserrat in the Caribbean in 1995 the eruption of the volcano soufrière
Hills completely covered Montserrat thousands of people had to abandon their
homes now imagine Mount Ranier with its mud
flows flooding the cities of Seattle and Tacoma home to 2 million people it’s
happened before between 1820 and 1892 Rainier had erupted 16 times then there
were only a few settlers in the area today if the same thing happened
thousands of lives will be affected parts of Tacoma in Seattle are built on
old mud flow deposits and it’s estimated that about a hundred thousand people
live over those old mud flow deposits and we know that they could happen again
you might think well if we can figure out when it’s going to erupt we can
begin to evacuate Seattle and the towns around there but the problem is we can’t
predict exactly when it’s going rough so what do you do you’re not sure if the
eruptions can happen in the first place you’re not sure how big the eruptions
going to be it’s an uphill battle for scientists but with today’s technology
scientists are more equipped to predict an eruption there’s information in every
single pixel about how much radar energy was reflected back how bright it is an
infrared technology known as in saw uses satellites to capture ground images
images that mean nothing to the untrained eye speak volumes to the
scientist we take pictures from Earth orbiting
satellites and we turn them into beautiful patterns like this which are
pictures of how much the ground has moved in this case how much uplift
there’s been in this case how much the ground is subsided another innovation
that’s become a vital weapon used by scientists the Global Positioning System
GPS is a constellation of 24 satellites each satellite orbits the earth at an
altitude of 11,000 miles and continuously transmits information on
the ground GPS receivers relay the information the global positioning
system a system of Earth orbiting satellites constantly broadcasting
signals that can be received on the earth and with a little bit of magic a
little bit of processing of those signals you can determine where you are
the volcano begins to swell or a given station begins to move laterally because
a fault is starting to move we can see that GPS I think is the ultimate
positioning tool for Volcanology studies it has the ability to get
three-dimensional displacements you can employ it as a continuous fixed site
that gives you data every second if you’d like or you can move the sites
around so this satellite is picking up those signals and the signals are
transmitted through the cable here down into this receiver right here and the
receiver logs the data and in fact it stores it on a small memory card just
like what you’d have in digital camera even with tools like the GPS there are
still so many details about volcanoes that scientists are trying to uncover
until today no scientist has been able to determine the precise timing and
magnitude of the next eruption this unpredictable nature perhaps explains
why there is great fear of the law but could the volcano perhaps be
beneficial to mankind a mighty volcanic eruption often elicits
fear death and devastation follow me this moment but not all volcanoes are
violent and destructive volcanoes give us life and sustain our existence this
is another characteristic of a volcano in Hawaii the eruptions are gentle they allow life to flourish Hawaiian
Volcano is although they do explode every once in a while usually erupt very
quietly they simply send out very fluid lava flows that can travel sometimes
quite long distances below the Pacific Ocean underneath the
layers of the Earth’s crust is molten magma over millions of years volcanic
eruptions under water caused each of the five Hawaiian Islands to be created
first the volcanic eruptions started over an area where molten magma rises
from underground this is called a hotspot over time they rise above water
to become an island when the Pacific plate moves the
newly-built island is cut off from the hot spot this
island moves together with the Pacific plate while the hot spot stays
stationary over the original hot spot new eruptions occur this is Kilauea it sits on the south
eastern slope of Hawaii’s Big Island it is a shield volcano shaped like a dome
with gentle sloping sides the Hawaiian volcano has a life span of around
500,000 years – maybe a little bit longer than that
currently Kilauea is is just a youth it’s it’s perhaps 200 or 250 thousand
years old it has a long ways to go but on average of probably half a million –
rarely perhaps as much as seven hundred thousand years or so geologically of
course not long but a huge time span in human terms yellow is main summit is the halima
Ummah ooh today lava no longer flows from this
crater but make no mistake Kilauea is an active volcano it has been erupting almost continuously
since 1982 before 1924 most of the eruptions in the previous hundred years
anyway have been occurring at the summit of kilauea and there was active lava
lake here for almost a century but in 1924 something about the system changed the eruption originally occurred at
Kilauea’s main summit then magma stopped flowing because of a drop in pressure
because of this magma was transported to another smaller crack near the surface
this process repeated several times transporting the magma eastwards through
different vents

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